Astronomers discovered 7 Earth-sized planets that orbit around nearby stars, According to a study published Wednesday in the journal Nature

Astronomers Discovered 7 Earth-Sized Planets That Orbit Around Nearby Stars, According To A Study Published Wednesday In The Journal Nature

Astronomers discovered 7 Earth-sized planets that orbit around nearby stars, According to a study published Wednesday in the journal Nature.

Astronomers have found at least seven planets the size of the Earth that orbit 40 light years from a single star. The findings were also announced at a press conference at NASA headquarters in Washington.

This discovery is rare outside our solar system because the planets are a combination of being the same size as the Earth and being all temperate, which means that there may be water on their surfaces and possibly support life.

“This is the first time that so many planets of this type are found around a single star,” said Michel Guillon, a leading study writer and astronomer at the University of Liège in Belgium.

Seven exoplanets were found in closed formation around an ultrapool dwarf star called TRAPPIST-1. Their mass estimates also indicate that they are rocky planets instead of being gaseous like Jupiter. The three planets are in the habitable zone of the stars, known as TRAPPIST-1e, f and g, and may even have oceans on the surface.

The TRAPPIST-1 star, an ultra-cold dwarf, has seven planets the size of Earth in orbit. Researchers believe that TRAPPIST-1f in particular is the best candidate to support life. It is slightly colder than Earth, but it may be adequate with the right atmosphere and enough greenhouse gases.

If TRAPPIST-1 is familiar, it is because these researchers announced the discovery of three early planets that orbit the same star in May. New research increased that number to a total of seven planets.

Three planets like Earth orbiting the dwarf star

“I think we have taken an important step to discover if there is life there,” said Amauri Triad, the study authors and astronomer at the University of Cambridge. “I don’t think we had time before that when we could discover what it was (life). Here, if life thrives and leaves the gases we have on Earth, then we know it will go.”

The researchers said that life can begin and develop differently on other planets, so it is important to detect gases that indicate life. “This discovery can be an important part in the puzzle of finding habitable environments, life-friendly places,” said Thomas Zurbuchen, associate administrator of the NASA Scientific Mission Directorate.

The answer to the question ‘Are we alone?” It is a scientific priority, and finding many planets like these for the first time in the habitable zone is a remarkable step towards this goal.

And as we have previously learned from the study and discovery of exoplanets, where there is one, there is more, said Sarah Seeger, a professor of planetary science and physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Seeger and other researchers are encouraged by the discovery of this system because it improves our chances of finding another habitable planet like Earth in the future, knowing where to look.

What we know?

The planets are so close to each other and the stars that at a distance of seven from space are five times smaller than the distance of Mercury from our Sun. This proximity allows researchers to study planets and obtain information on planetary systems other than ours .

The seven TRAPPIST-1 planets compared Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars.
The planets revolve around a year and a half to approximately 13 Earth days, starting from the closest to the star and leaving. The farthest planet’s orbit is still unknown.

When you stand on the surface of a single planet, you will receive 200 times less light than what you receive from the Sun, but you will still get the same amount of energy that will keep you warm even after being so close to the star. You will also have some picturesque views, since other planets will appear as large (or even double) as the moon in the sky.

In TRAPPIST-1f, the star will appear three times larger than the sun in our sky. And due to the red nature of the star, researchers have speculated that the light will be salmon.

Researchers believe that planets form together beyond the stars. Then, they moved to their current lineup. It is incredibly similar to Jupiter and its billions of moons.

Like the Moon, researchers believe that the planets closest to the star are happily closed. This means that planets always face the same path near the star. One side of the planet is always at night.

What a TRAPPIST-1 planetary system would look like.

According to preliminary weather models, researchers believe that the three planets closest to the star may be too hot to withstand liquid water, while the outermost planet, TRAPPIST-1h, to withstand water on the surface Probably too far and cold . But more observations are needed to know for sure.

How was the search performed?

TRAPPIST-1 classifies the mass of the Sun as a star and a tenth at just half the temperature. It is red, dim and slightly larger than Jupiter. But these small ultrapool dwarf stars are common in our galaxy.

Strange and surprising planets beyond our solar system.

They were largely ignored until Gillon decided to study the space around one of these dwarves. The researchers used a telescope called TRAPPIST (TRAnsiting Planets and PlanetesImals Small Telescope) to observe changes in their starlight and brightness.

The team observed shadows, like small eclipses, periodically interrupting the constant pattern of starlight. This is called transit. The shadow indicated the planets, and subsequent observation confirmed them.

In July, the team was able to determine that two of the planets closest to the star had more compact and comparable atmospheres to those on Earth, Venus and Mars by observing the stars through the planet’s atmosphere.

A closer look at the new Earth-like planets for the first time

Like Spitzer, using global network terrestrial telescopes such as TRAPPIST and space telescopes, the researchers continued to look towards the TRAPPIST system and were able to determine the distance from the orbital period, its stars, radii and planetary masses.

What will happen next?

Over the next decade, researchers want to define the atmosphere of each planet, as well as determine if they really retain liquid water on the surface and look for signs of life.

Although the sound of 40 light years away is not far away, it will take us millions of years to reach this star system. But from a research perspective, this is a close opportunity and the best goal to discover life beyond our solar system.

The painters look closely at us with ‘Tatoin’ and other alien planets

“If we learn something now, it can determine if we look at the right place,” Gillon said. In 2018, the James Webb space telescope will launch and be located 1 million miles from Earth with an unprecedented view of the universe. You can observe large exoplanets and detect filtered stars through its atmosphere.

Researchers are also exploring similar star systems to conduct more atmospheric research. Four telescopes called Speculos based in Chile (search for habitable planets that eclipse the ULtra-COOl stars) will examine the southern sky for this purpose.

This star system will probably overtake us because this type of star develops very slowly. When our sun dies, TRAPPIST-1 will remain a young star and will live for another billion years. After we are gone, if there is another part of the universe to pursue life, it may be in the TRAPPIST-1 system.

This is the most exciting result I’ve seen in 14 years of Spitzer operations, said Sean Carey, manager of NASA’s Spitzer Science Center at Caltech / IPAC in Pasadena, California. Spitzer will continue the decline to further refine our understanding of these planets, following the James Webb space telescope. Greater observation of the system will surely reveal more secrets.

NASA discovers 7 Earth-like planets: some interesting facts you should know

This photo from NASA shows the Astronomer of the Baltimore Space Telescope Science Institute, Nicole Lewis, while presenting the research findings during the TRAPPIST-1 planetary informational meeting.

Talk about the discovery of the destruction of the Earth. Scientists have observed seven planets the size of the Earth around a nearby star, some or all of them can alter water and possibly life. The largest group of such planets has not yet been found.

The ultrafresh star in the center of this system shines 200 times less than our sun, since we know it is a continuous twilight. And the star will glow red, perhaps the color of salmon, researchers speculate. Here is a quick look:

This star system is 40 light years less than Earth, or 235 billion miles away, in the constellation Aquarius. The center has a small, weak star known as TRAPPIST-1. The seven planetary circle Trappist-1, which revolves around 1 20 to 20 days.

If Trappist-1 were our Sun, then all these planets would fit into the orbit of Mercury. How close they are to their star and why their orbit is so low. The planets have no real name. They are only known by the letter “b” a “h”. The word “A” refers to the star itself.

An artist’s illustration shows a possible surface on one of the seven newly discovered planets in the TRAPPIST-1 system discovered by scientists using the Spitzer space telescope and terrestrial telescopes.

An artist’s illustration shows a possible surface on one of the seven newly discovered planets in the TRAPPIST-1 system discovered by scientists using the Spitzer space telescope and terrestrial telescopes.

The three planets are hard dub in the so-called habitable zone, also known as the Goldilocks zone, where conditions are good for water and life to thrive, not too much and too little stellar energy. Four other planets are so temptingly close to the Goldilocks zone that they can also disturb water and potentially life.

But only because a planet is in this sweet spot, life does not exist or never existed. If aliens observed our solar system from the Trappist-1 network, they could say, “Hey, there are three habitable planets, Venus, Earth and Mars,” said Sarah Seeger, an astrophysicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who was not involved in the study. . The point is: “Wait and see what’s there,” he warns.

How to see

Trappist-1, one of several ultrapolitical dwarfs that leave the galaxy, lights red. If you stand on one of the planets, the star may appear colored like a salmon. Their planets are so close together that they will appear twice as large as our moon in the sky. Temperatures can be as beautiful as Earth, at least on one of these planets.

Scientists need to study the atmosphere of rocky planets almost predictably before reaching conclusions about water and life. The Hubble Space Telescope is already in the case. The James Webb space telescope, still under construction, will be included as soon as it is launched next year.

The web will look for gases that can be a byproduct of life: oxygen, ozone and methane. Scientists say it should take five years to control all these atmospheres and discover if there is water and maybe life.

In total, astronomers have confirmed 3,600 planets outside our solar system since the 1990s, but their stars are barely four dozen in their habitable zone, and only 18 of them are about the size of the Earth.

Phosphine can signal alien anaerobic life on Roxy planets: A team of MIT researchers discovered that phosphine, one of the most toxic gases on Earth, cannot be produced in any way other than anaerobic organisms, which makes it a biosignation gas of pure ignition. ‘

Life uses thousands of volatile compounds that can contribute to the biosphere. Some of these compounds can accumulate in the planet’s atmosphere and be remotely detectable, these are commonly called aces biosafety gases. ‘

There are important biofirma gases on Earth that are relatively abundant and spectroscopically active (mainly oxygen, ozone, methane and nitrous oxide).

“Here on Earth, oxygen is an impressive sign of life,” said Dr. Clara Susa-Silva, a scientist at the Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences at MIT.

“But other things besides life also produce oxygen. It is important to consider more strange molecules that often cannot be formed, but if you find them on another planet, there is only one explanation.”

In a new investigation, Drs. Susa-Silva and his colleagues discovered that phosphine is a promising marker for life if detected in a rocky exoplanet. But to be sure, they have to rule out any possibility that this gas originated from something other than life.

To do this, he spent the last few years running several phosphorus species, the essential basic components of phosphine, in increasingly extreme scenarios, through a thorough theoretical analysis of chemical routes, to see how can phosphorus become phosphine in any abiotic way?

The researchers worked to observe the chemical and thermodynamic pathways involved in many scenarios on Earth to see if they could produce enough energy to convert phosphorus to phosphorus.

“At some point we were seeing less and less admirable mechanisms, as if the tectonic plates were rubbing each other, could I get a plasma spark that produced phosphine?” They said

“Or if lightning strikes somewhere that contains phosphorus, or a meteorite contains phosphorus, can it cause effects to produce phosphine?”

“And we go through many years of this process to discover that there is nothing more than life than the amount of phosphine that is detectable.”

Scientists have discovered that phosphine has no significant false positives, which means that any phosphine detection is a sure sign of life.

According to the team, if phosphine is produced in relatively small quantities equivalent to the amount of methane produced on Earth today, it would produce a signal in the atmosphere that could be detected by an advanced observatory like the next James Webb. Space Telescope, if that planet was 16 light years from Earth.

“Since the establishment of phosphine as a viable biology in the search for extraterrestrial life,” said Esosa-Silva, our results provide a pipeline, or for researchers to follow one of the other 16,000 candidates for the biological signature. Process. “Sosa-Silva said.

The team article was published in the journal Astrobiology.

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