Betelgeuse is not dimming because it is the explosion: it is only dusty, a team of American astronomers visited Betelgeuse. On February 15, 2020.
A team of American astronomers observed a bright red Betelgeuse arecan, located approximately 650 light years from Earth, using the Devinney optical spectrograph on the 4.3-M Lowrey discovery telescope.
They discovered that if the surface of the star cooled recently due to attenuation, the star is much warmer than expected.
The new calculations support the theory that Betelgeuse, like many red supergiant stars, is likely to remove some of the material from its outer layers.
This image, taken by ALMA in 2017, shows superstar star Betelgeuse.
We see it all the time in the red supergiant and it is a normal part of its life cycle, Drs. Emily Levesque declared that she is an astronomer in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Washington, Seattle.
Betelgeuse is the explosion
This image, taken by ALMA in 2017, shows superstar star Betelgeuse. The red supergiant sometimes sheds material from its surfaces, which will condense around the star in the form of dust.
As it cools and perishes, the dust grains will move towards a little light and block our view. This is still true: astronomers expect Betelgeuse to explode as a supernova in the next 100,000 years when its nucleus collapses.
But Star’s attenuation, which began in October 2019, is not necessarily a sign of an imminent supernova. One theory was that the newly formed dust was absorbing the light of Betelgeuse.
- Another claimed that the huge convection cells inside Betelgeuse had attracted hot material to its surface.
- Where it had cooled before falling back inside.
- An astronomer at the Lowell Observatory, Drs. Philip Massey said.
- A simple way to distinguish between these possibilities is to determine the effective surface temperature of Betelgeuse.
- Measuring the temperature of a star is not a simple task.
- Scientists cannot simply point a thermometer at a star and get a reading.
- But by observing the spectrum of light emanating from a star.
- And astronomers can calculate its temperature.
The light of the bright stars is often too strong for a broad spectrum, but the team applied a filter that effectively ‘dampened’ the signal to be able to extract the spectrum for a particular signature: by titanium oxide molecules Light absorption.
Dr. “Titanium oxide can freeze and freeze in the upper layers of large, relatively cold stars such as Betelgeuse,” Levesque said.
It absorbs certain wavelengths of light and releasing ‘tablespoons’ of teltale in the spectrum of red supergents that scientists can use to determine the surface temperature of the star. This comparative image shows Betelgeuse.
Also known as Alpha Orionis, before and after its unprecedented attenuation. The observations taken with the SPHERE instrument at ESO’s Very Large Telescope in January and December 2019 show how much the star has faded and its apparent shape has changed.
This comparative image shows Betelgeuse, also known as Alpha Orionis, before and after its unprecedented attenuation. The observations taken with the SPHERE instrument at ESO’s Very Large Telescope in January and December 2019 show how much the star has faded and its apparent shape has changed.
According to their calculations, the surface temperature of Betelgeuse was 3,325 degrees Celsius (4.01ren degrees Fahrenheit) in February 2020.
Several years before that dramatic temperature began, But while the convection cells in our Sun are many and relatively small, like red betel nuts the size of Texas or Mexico, like Betelgeuse, which are large, cold and have weak gravity.The game is only three or four cells Large-scale convection, which stretches a lot on their surfaces.
If one of these giant cells had grown on the surface of Betelgeuse, the study authors would have reported a significantly greater decrease in temperature between 2004 and 2020.
A comparison with our 2004 spectrum immediately revealed that the temperature did not change much. We knew the answer was to have dust, “Dr. Massey said.
Astronomers have observed dust clouds around other red supergiants, and additional observations may reveal a similar disorder around Betelgeuse.
In recent weeks, Betelgeuse has really begun to shine again, if only a little. Even if the recent attenuation was not a sign that the star would explode soon, there is no reason to see it.
Dr. “Red supergiants are very dynamic stars,” Levesque said.
The more we can learn about their normal behavior (temperature fluctuations, dust, convection cells) and the better we can understand and recognize them when something unique like a supernova can occur.
The findings will be published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.
Betelgeuse continue to decline, and we have no idea why. Betelgeuse is falling behind and everyone is wondering what it really means. This star will go to supernova at the end of its life, but it won’t happen even after thousands of years. So what’s going on?
Astronomers Edward Guinan and Richard Wasatonic from Villanova University were the first to report on Betelgeuse recently. In a new publication from The Astronomers Telegram, the pair of astronomers reported on another expansion of Betelgeuse.
They also claim that although the star continues to decrease, its speed is slow.
Betelgeuse is a giant red star in the Orion constellation. It left the main sequence about a million years ago and has been a red supergiant for almost 40,000 years.It is an SN II ancestor of core collapse, which means that eventually Betelgeuse will burn enough hydrogen for its core to collapse, and explode as a supernova.
It is known as a semi-regular variable star, which means that its brightness is variable. Its cycle lasts approximately 420 days and the other cycle is approximately five or six years old.
A third cycle is short; Around 100 to 180 days. Although most of its fluctuations are predictable and follow these cycles, some of them are not like the current attenuation.
- The variable magnitude of betelgeuse.
- The horrors of Betelgeuse in visible light, from August 2018 to January 2020.
- Astronomers had been monitoring Betelgeuse for a long time.
- Visual estimates of the star date back almost 180 years.
- Since the 1920s, the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) has taken more systematic action.
- About 40 years ago, astronomers at Villanova University began taking systematic photometric measurements of Betelgeuse brightness.
- The photometry data for the past 25 years is the most complete and, based on those data, the star is as faint as ever.
- Since September 2019, according to the Guinan and Wasatonic post in the Astronomer telegram.
The temperature in Betelgeuse has dropped by 100 Kelvin and its brightness has decreased by about 25 percent in the same time period. Based on all those measurements, the star’s radius increased by about 9 percent. This inflammation is expected already in the Betelgeuse era.
In a way, we are fortunate to have passed Betelgeuse, at least astronomically. He is only 650 light years away, and this makes him a great teacher.
It is the only star apart from our Sun in which we can see surface details. This helps astronomers understand what is happening there and in other similar stars.
Like all stars, Betelgeuse generates heat in its core through fusion. Heat is transferred to its surface by convection.
The currents that carry heat are called convection cells, which can be seen as deep patches on the surface.
As the star rotates, these cells rotate in and out, contributing to the observed variability of the betelgeuse.
In 2013, scientists reported evidence of convection cells in the Sun that lasted for months.It was inconclusive, but is there anything that can contribute to Betelgeuse?
This dimming episode may not be the star itself, but a cloud of gas and dust that darkens the light. As time passes, and Betelgeuse burns more fuel, it loses mass.
As it loses mass, its gravitational grip on its outer edges weakens and the gas cloud escapes from the stars in the surrounding areas. This can lead to current dimming episodes.
Or could it be something else?
We know a lot about the stars, but we don’t know everything. We have never been able to see other red supergiants the same way we can with Betelgeuse.
Astronomers know what will happen, they don’t know when Whatever the reason, we know what Betelgeuse is ultimately like: the supernova explosion.
At this time it is unknown whether this attenuation is directly related to the proximal catastrophic death of this unstable star. As Guinan and Wasatonic say in the Astronomers Telegram, “Betelgeuse unusual behavior must be closely observed.”
When Betelgeuse finally goes to a supernova. It will be the most fascinating act of nature seen by any human. Betelgeuse far surpassed other supernovae like SN 185 and SN 1604.
When Betelgeuse goes to a supernova, it will be the third brightest object in the sky after the Sun and Full Moon. Some estimates indicate that it will be faster than the Moon.
That glow will last for months and cast a shadow on the ground even at night. Betelgeuse will light up the sky like other supernovae.
And it will last for months, appear during the day, and cast shadows at night. Then in about three years, its current glow will fade. Almost six years after going to Supernova, Betelgeuse would not appear in the night sky either.
No one else would be Orion the Hunter. No one knows exactly when this will happen.
And while this recent recession probably isn’t directly related to Betelgeuse’s latest supernova explosion, astronomers don’t know for sure, either. This article was originally published by Universe Today.