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    NASA tracks a scorching heat wave in the southwestern United States

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    NASA tracks a scorching heat wave
    NASA tracks a scorching heat wave

    NASA tracks a scorching heat wave in the southwestern United States. While a scientific instrument struck the southwestern United States in early July. One mapped the high pressure dome that was installed, but the other captured the ground surface temperature. Just weeks after record Pacific Northwest temperatures, another heat wave hitting the US burned the Southwest.

    This heat wave, which began around July 7, broke or broke several records in California, Nevada, northern Arizona and southern Utah. Two instruments, NASA’s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard the Aqua satellite, and the agency’s ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS), tracked the heat wave, providing visualizations of it.

    5.6 degrees Celsius

    The AIRS instrument covered the southwestern US from July 1 to July 12. In captured the progress of the slow moving heat dome. Animation of AIRS data (above) shows surface air temperature anomalies: values above or below the long-term average. Surface air temperatures in warmer areas shown in pink are more than 10 degrees Fahrenheit (5.6 degrees Celsius) above average. Surface air temperature is something that people feel directly when they are outside.

    NASA ECOSTRESS California July 2021

    On July 8, 2021, NASA’s ECOSTRESS instrument aboard the space station captured surface temperature data over California. Areas in red, including Death Valley, had passed 86 degrees Fahrenheit by 7 a.m. local time, well above the average ground surface temperature for the area. credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech

     

    NASA tracks a scorching heat wave
    NASA tracks a scorching heat wave

    On July 8, NASA’s ECOSTRESS instrument, attached to the International Space Station, captured surface temperature data over California. In the image (middle image), the areas in red, including Death Valley, had exceeded 86 degrees Fahrenheit (30 degrees Celsius) at 7 a.m. local time, well above the average ground surface temperature for the area.

    California & Northern Arizona

    On July 9, Death Valley recorded a high air temperature of 130 F, dropping just a few degrees below the official all-time surface air temperature record of 134 F, set in 1913. On July 11 , Bishop, California hit an all-time high of 111 F and Stovepipe Wells, California set a new record for average daily temperatures of 118 F. Several other daily, monthly and all-time records were set in the inner central and southern areas from California and northern Arizona.

    NASA tracks the heat wave in the southwestern United States – The AIRS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite visited the southwestern US July 1-12, 2021. Temperature readings collected in the atmosphere and on the surface during an unprecedented heat wave. credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech

    NASA tracks the heat wave

    While a scientific instrument struck the southwestern United States in early July. One mapped the high pressure dome that was installed, but the other captured the ground surface temperature.

    Just weeks after record Pacific Northwest temperatures, another heat wave hitting the US burned the Southwest. This heat wave, which began around July 7, broke or broke several records in California, Nevada, northern Arizona and southern Utah.

    Two instruments, NASA’s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard the Aqua satellite, and the agency’s ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS), tracked the heat wave, providing visualizations of it.

    Air temperature

    The AIRS instrument covered the southwestern US from July 1 to July 12. In captured the progress of the slow moving heat dome. Animation of AIRS data (above) shows surface air temperature anomalies: values above or below the long-term average.

    Surface air temperatures in warmer areas shown in pink are more than 10 degrees Fahrenheit (5.6 degrees Celsius) above average. Surface air temperature is something that people feel directly when they are outside.

    On July 8, 2021, NASA’s ECOSTRESS instrument aboard the space station captured surface temperature data over California. Areas in red, including Death Valley, had passed 86 degrees Fahrenheit by 7 a.m. local time, well above the average ground surface temperature for the area.

    High air temperature of 130 F

    On July 8, NASA’s ECOSTRESS instrument, attached to the International Space Station, captured surface temperature data over California. In the image (middle image), the areas in red, including Death Valley, had exceeded 86 degrees Fahrenheit (30 degrees Celsius) at 7 a.m. local time, well above the average ground surface temperature for the area.

    On July 9, Death Valley recorded a high air temperature of 130 F, dropping just a few degrees below the official all-time surface air temperature record of 134 F, set in 1913. On July 11 , Bishop, California hit an all-time high of 111 F and Stovepipe Wells, California set a new record for average daily temperatures of 118 F. Several other daily, monthly and all-time records were set in the inner central and southern areas from California and northern Arizona.

    Record-breaking intense heat wave
    Record-breaking intense heat wave

    California’s record-breaking intense heat wave was monitored by NASA’s ECOSTRESS. ECOSTRESS Temperature Map Los Angeles August 2020. This ECOSTRESS temperature map shows the Earth’s surface temperatures during the August 14, 2020 heat wave across Los Angeles County. credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech

    California’s record-breaking intense heat wave

    From cities to deserts, California’s scorching heat is being monitored by an Earth-observing mission aboard the International Space Station. As record temperatures and major fires ravage California, NASA’s Spaceborne Ecosystem Thermal Radiometer Experiment on the Space Station (ECOSTRESS) is tracking a heat wave from low Earth orbit.

    While ECOSTRESS’s primary mission is to measure the temperature of plants as they emerge from the water, it can also measure and track heat-related events such as heat waves, wildfires, and volcanoes.

    at 3:56 pm. 14 PDT (6:56 p.m. EDT), as the space station passed over Los Angeles, ECOSTRESS was able to take a snapshot of the rise in Earth’s surface temperature across the county, home to more than 10 million people.

    The temperature of the earth’s surface is the temperature of the earth rather than the temperature of the air above it. In the first image, ECOSTRESS measured a temperature range of approximately 70 to 125 ° F (21 to 52 ° C), being the coldest on beaches and mountains.

    The highest surface temperatures, in deep red, were found northwest of downtown Los Angeles in the San Fernando Valley. The instrument also captured the ranch fire, which was visible in the center of the image as it burned. The Earth’s surface temperature exceeded 125 ° F (52 ° C), between which it peaked at 128.3 ° F (53.5 ° C). The cities of Van Nuys and Encino.

    ECOSTRESS Temperature Map Death Valley August 2020

    This ECOSTRESS temperature map shows land surface temperatures around Death Valley in California’s Mojave Desert during a heat wave on August 16, 2020. Those afternoon peaks were within the range of morning surface temperatures, ECOSTRESS measured two days later in Death Valley, part of California’s Mojave Desert.

    As shown in the second image, from 8:50 a.m. PDT (11:50 a.m. EDT) on August 16, ECOSTRESS recorded a high temperature of 122.52 degrees Fahrenheit (50.29 degrees Celsius) near Furnace Creek in Death Valley National Park.

    Earth Sciences

    The ECOSTRESS observations have a spatial resolution of approximately 77 by 77 yards (70 by 70 meters), allowing researchers to study surface temperature conditions down to the size of a football field. Due to the unique orbit of the space station, the mission can acquire images of the same region at different times of the day, unlike satellites in other orbits that cross each region at the same time.

    For example, this is beneficial when monitoring plant stress in the same area throughout the day.

    The ECOSTRESS radiometer is deployed on the International Space Station (ISS) at the Japanese Experimental Module – External Facility (JEM-EF) Site 10. At this location, the radiometer scan is perpendicular to the speed of the ISS. 

    NASA’s Earth System

    The ECOSTRESS mission launched to the space station on June 29, 2018. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, California, builds and manages the mission for the Earth Sciences Division at the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington.

     

    Record-breaking intense heat wave
    Record-breaking intense heat wave

    ECOSTRESS is an Earth Venture Instrument mission; The program is administered by NASA’s Earth System Science Pathfinder Program at NASA’s Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia.

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    NASA Tests New Moon Rover’s Moves in Lunar Lab

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    NASA tests new moon rover
    NASA tests new moon rover’s moves in lunar lab

    NASA tests new moon rover’s moves in lunar lab. NASA tests new moon rover and lunar operation laboratory. A Voltile engineering model that explores the Polar Exploration Rover, or VIPER, has been tested at the Simulated Lunar Operation Laboratory at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The size of a golf cart, VIPER is a mobile robot that will walk around the South Pole of the Moon, looking for water ice in the region and, for the first time, will take samples of water ice on the same ice. Where the man will land in 2024 as the first woman and the next Artemis program.

    NASA tests new moon rover

    The large adjustable earth vessel contains the lunar cement and allows engineers to mimic the moon’s terrain. The engineers at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, where the rover was designed and manufactured, joined Glenn’s team to complete the tests. The test data will be used to evaluate the traction of the vehicle. NASA tests new moon rover, the wheels, determine the power requirements for different types of maneuvers and compare methods for crossing steep slopes. Researchers use researchers to protect themselves against the aerial silica present during the tests. VIPER is a collaboration inside and outside the agency.

    NASA’s Ames Research Center managed the project, leading the mission science, systems engineering, real-time mobile surface operations and software. Rover’s team is provided by NASA’s KennedySpace Center in Ames, Florida, and its business partner, Honeybee. Robotics in California. The spacecraft, landing module and launch vehicle that will deliver VIPER to the surface of The Moonwill will be provided through NASA’s Commercial Lunar Cargo Services program, which will deliver science and technology payloads to and near the Moon. A second planet may have been found orbiting the Next Centauri and this is a super meaning.

    lunar lab

    Astronomers have discovered another candidate in orbit around our neighbor Proxima Centauri. An article announcing these results was published only in Science Advances. If confirmed, it will be the second exoplanet that orbits the star. The artist’s impression shows a view of the surface of the planet Proxima B and orbiting Proxima Centauri, the closest red dwarf star to the solar system. This was great news in 2016 when astronomers discovered a planet that orbits Proxima Centauri (PC), the closest star to our Sun. That planet called Proxima B is potentially habitable, and at that time it was speculated that we could send an explorer robot In just a few decades.

    The discovery of a second planet. Although its possibility of liquid water is far from being its star, is intensifying interest in the PC system. The inventors of this new planet, Proxima C, say follow-up observations are needed to confirm this as a planet. Changes in the stellar activity of Proxima Centauri indicated the presence of another planet. But they also say that the data they possess cannot be explained in terms of any stellar activity. Due to its proximity and angular separation from the star, it is an ideal candidate for follow-up observations, and even images with next-generation telescopes. The mass of Proxima C is approximately half that of Neptune.

    South Pole of the Moon

    Its orbit is approximately 1.5 times greater than that of Earth. Its temperature is approximately -200 C,if it has no atmosphere. Proxima Centauri has been the subject of intense astronomical research over the years but finding Proxima C is still surprising, as its presence defies our model of how super-Lands are formed and developed. The main author of this study is Mario Damaso of the INAF Astrophysical Observatory of Turin, Italy. The study is titled “A low mass planetary candidate orbiting Proxima Centauri at a distance of deux au”. It was published on January 15, 2020. Hugh Jones, professor of astrophysics at the University of Hertfordshire, also participated in the study.

    In an article in “The Conversation, Jones described how difficult it can be to separate the data and that shows the presence of a planet from the data that shows stellar activity on a host planet”. Like our sun, the next ones have spots due to areas of intense magnetic activity that change and come out quickly on a variety of time scales. These characteristics must be taken into account when looking for any planetary sign. Like our Sun , Proxima Centauri has sunspots that can confuse astronomers with the discovery of the exoplanet. Sunspots are dark areas on the surface of the sun that are cooler than the surrounding areas.

    Polar Exploration Rover

    They are formed where magnetic fields are particularly strong. Although the stellar activity does not match the data. The search engines are cautious, unless the presence of Proxima C can be confirmed or denied in the follow-up observations, and it can certainly control the stellar activity. The discovery of Exoplanet of this new candidate is contained in this new document but the story goes back a few years. Several teams of scientists have Proxima Centauri diarrhea for exoplanets. Most of his work is based on radial velocity data, specifically from HARPS (ESO High Precision Radial Velocity Planet Finder). According to the study, astronomers exclude the presence of certain planets of degree of mass in certain ranges of Au from PCs.

    A 1999 study excluded the presence of any planet beyond the 1700 AU of the PC. Since the PC itself orbits the Alpha Centauri AB.
    A 2019 study set an upper limit of 0.3 Jupiter of mass for any planet within 10 AU of the PC. The same study excluded the presence of planets in the mass of Jupiter between 0.3 and 8, between 10 and 50 AU. Other studies impose more restrictions but astronomers also know that red dwarfs house more small planets than other types of stars. Then they kept looking. The Breakthrough Starshot Initiative (BSI) believes they can send a small spaceship to Proxima Centauri. In 2016, when the exoplanet Centauri B was discovered, BSI found work.

    Exploration Rover

    They think they can send a nanospace with cameras inside a UA on the planet and expect to receive images with any telescope that is more detailed. They say they should be able to return images that show continents and oceans. On its website, the BSI states that “to achieve a resolution comparable to a space telescope in the Earth’s orbit, the telescope must have a diameter of 300 km” but even though the PC is “close” to astronomical terms, it is still a great distance. 4.2 At a distance of light years, it will take decades to get there, traveling at a speed of light of 20% (approximately 216,000 kilometers per hour).

    Currently, the fastest spacecraft is NASA’s Parker solar probe, which will only reach a maximum speed. 692,000 km / h. But if we can take a spaceship there or not just part of the story. Due to its proximity, the Proxima Centauri system is an observation laboratory to understand other solar systems. Its presence and proximity can inspire the technological development necessary to study it in more detail. As Hughes Jones stated in his article in The Conversation, “Ultimately, the discovery of many signals from very close stars suggests that planets are more common than stars. Proxima represents an excellent place to develop new techniques to understand exoplanets more close and better understand the universe we have created.

    Proxima C

    The existence of Proxima C is problematic, or at least important, for our planetary formation model. On super-Earth planets around low-mass stars known for red velocity, Proxima C will have the longest duration and the lowest mass. It would also be the farthest distance from its mother star compared to the Frost line on the original protoplanetary disk. The authors state that Proxima C is unlikely to be expelled from its initial position near the due to some instability because its orbit is consistent with a circular and the absence of larger at shorter orbital distances. In his article, he states: Beyond the challenges of the snow line.

    The super-Earth is well formed, according to which the snow line is an ideal point for the super-Earth crash due to the accumulation of solid ice creams in that place. Proxima Centauri is a red dwarf star, or M dwarf. It is about 4.2 light years away from the Sun, making it our closest neighbor. It is the third star in a triangular system, the Alpha Centauri AB being the binary star. Proxima Centauri has approximately 13,000 AU of Alpha Centauri AB, and was discovered in 1915. It was discovered that “cold Neptune” and two super-Temperate Lands orbited nearby stars: A “cold Neptune” and two potentially habitable worlds are part of a stash of five newly discovered exoplanets and eight exoplanet candidates orbiting near nearby red dwarf stars.

    red dwarf stars

    And led by the team led by Fabo Fang and Paul de Carnegie the Astrophysical Journal is described in the support series. The concept of the artist of Robin Dynel, courtesy of the Carnegie Institution for Science and orbiting two potentially habitable planets GJ180 and GJ229A, are among the stars closest to our own Sun, making them the next generation of space and earth. Let’s make important goals for comments. Both are super-Earth with mass of our planet and 5 and planet 4 times with a rotating period of 108 and 122 days respectively. The planet of mass of Neptune. Which is orbiting at a distance of GJ 433. Probably freezes on its surface, is perhaps the first of its kind that is a realistic candidate for future direct images.

    New types of worlds were discovered using the radial velocity method for planetary exploration. Which takes advantage of the fact that not only the gravity of a star affects the orbit of that planet, but also the gravity of the star on the planet. It affects the This creates small wobbles in the star’s orbit that can be detected with advanced equipment. Because of their lower mass, red dwarfs are the primary class of stars around which terrestrial planets can be found using this technique. The artist concept of the GJ180d. Which is for us the closest super-temperate Earth that is not blocked with its own star, makes it more likely that it can house and sustain life. Illustrations are courtesy of Robin Dynel, Carnegie Institution for Science.

    types of stars

    Cooler and smaller than our Sun, red dwarfs, also known as M dwarfs, are the most common stars in the galaxy and the primary class of stars known to house terrestrial planets. In addition, compared to other types of stars, red dwarfs can house planets at the right temperature, liquid water on their surfaces in very close orbits compared to other stars found in this so-called “habitable zone.” Many of the planets that orbit red dwarfs in the habitable zone are happily closed. Which means that the period in which they revolve around their axes is the same period in which they house their stars. We are going to rotate. This is similar to how our Moon is blocked on Earth, which means we once see a side from here as a result.

    These exoplanets have very cold permanent nights on one side and very hot permanent days on the other side are not good for the habit. The GJ180d is the closest temperate super-Earth that doesn’t close to its star, which probably increases the likelihood of being able to house and sustain life. The other potentially habitable planet, GJ229Ac, is for us the closest super-temperate Earth located in a system in which the host star has a brown dwarf companion. Sometimes called failed stars, brown dwarfs cannot maintain hydrogen fusion. The brown dwarf in this system, GJ229B, was one of the first brown dwarfs to be copied.

    binary star brown dwarf system

    It is not known if they can accommodate exoplanets by themselves, but this planetary system is an external case study of how exoplanets form and evolve in a binary star brown dwarf system. The Ultraviolet and Visual Excel spectrograph of the South Observatory surveyed 33 red dwarf stars, which operated from 2000 to 2007 and were launched in 2009. We have reached the old data for this result, directed by Joker Butler. Once the objectives were discovered in the UVES archives, the researchers used observations from three planet search devices to increase the accuracy of the data.

    The Carnegie Planet Finder (PFS) spectrograph in Chile at our Campus Observatory and the Excel High Resolution Spectrometer (HIRES) at the Keck Observatory were critical to this effort. The combination of data from multiple telescopes increases the number and reference time of observations, and reduces instrumental bias, Butler explained. Astronomers reveal an interstellar thread of one of the basic components of life. Alma and Rosetta trace the match journey. The lead author of a new study. Published today in the magazine in the monthly announcement of the Royal Astronomical Society, says Victor Rivilla,

    Life appeared on Earth about 4 billion years ago, but we still don’t know the processes that make it possible. The new results of the Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Array (ALMA). Which the European Southern Observatory (ESO) is a partner, and the Rosina instrument on the Rosetta board show that phosphorus monoxide is a significant fraction of the puzzle of life original. With the power of ALMA, which allowed a detailed look at the star-forming region AFGL 5142, astronomers were able to point out that phosphorus-containing molecules are formed, such as phosphorus monoxide.

    European Space Agency

    New stars and planetary systems originate in areas such as clouds of gas and dust between the stars. Which makes these interstellar clouds the ideal place to begin exploring the basic components of life. The phosphorus present in our DNA and cell membrane is an essential element for life as we know it but how it came to the primitive Earth is a mystery. Astronomers have detected the phosphorus journey from star-forming regions to comets using the combined powers of ALMA and the Rosetta probe of the European Space Agency. His research shows that, for the first time, where there are phosphorus-containing molecules.

    How this element is transported in comets and how a particular molecule may have played an important role in the beginning of life on our planet. ALMA observations showed that phosphorus-containing molecules are formed primarily as stars. The gas flow of young giant stars opens cavities in interstellar clouds. The molecule forms a molecule rich in phosphorus in the walls of the cavity, through the combined action of the shock and radiation of the star. Astronomers have also shown that phosphorus monoxide is the most abundant phosphorus-containing molecule in the walls of the cavity.

    solar system

    After discovering this molecule in regions of star formation with ALMA, the European team moved to an object of the solar system, the now famous comet 67P / Churyumov – Gerasimenko. The idea was to follow the traces of these phosphorus-containing compounds. If the walls of the cavity collapse to form a star, especially less heavy as the Sun, phosphorus monoxide can freeze and get trapped in the grains of icy dust surrounding the new star. Pebbles, rocks and eventually comets, along with those dust grains, become phosphorus monoxide transporters before the star is fully formed.

    ROSINA, which means ION and neutral analysis for the Royon Orbiter spectrometer, collected 67P data for two years while Rosetta orbited the comet. Astronomers had previously found signs of phosphorus in Rosina’s data, but they didn’t know what the molecule was doing there. The new study found a clue about Catherine Altweg. Principal investigator and author of Rosina, about what the molecule could be after being contacted at an ALMA conference with an astronomer studying the star-forming regions.

    They said phosphorus monoxide I would be a very likely candidate, so I went back to my data and there it was! This first vision of phosphorus monoxide in a comet helps astronomers establish a connection between the star-forming regions where the molecule is formed, until it reaches Earth. A combination of ALMA and rosina data has revealed a type of chemical thread throughout the star formation process, in which phosphorus monoxide plays an important role, says researcher Rivilla of the Archetypal Astrological Observatory of Rivilla, Italy.

    Earth and space

    National Institute of Astrophysics – “Phosphorus is essential for life,” says Altwegg, “since the comet has probably transported the most organic compounds to Earth. The phosphorus monoxide found in comet 67P that links the link between comets and life on earth. It can strengthen. This complicated trip can be documented due to collaborative efforts among astronomers. The detection of phosphorus monoxide was clearly thanks to the interdisciplinary exchange between telescopes present on Earth and space, says Altweig. This complicated trip can be documented due to collaborative efforts among astronomers.

    The detection of phosphorus monoxide was clearly thanks to the interdisciplinary exchange between telescopes present on Earth and space, says Altweig. Leonardo Tasty, ESO astronomer and European operations manager at Alma, concluded. Understanding our cosmic origins, including how common chemical conditions are for the emergence of life, is an important issue in modern astrophysics. While ESO and Alma focus on the observations of molecules in distant young planetary systems, the direct of chemical inventories within our solar is possible through ESA missions, such as Rosetta.

    Royal Astronomical Society

    Through the collaboration between ESO and ESA, the synergy between the main terrestrial and space facilities in the world is a powerful asset for European researchers and allows the transformative discoveries reported in this document. This research was presented in a document that will be published in the monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. ESO is the largest intergovernmental astronomical organization in Europe and the most productive terrestrial astronomical observatory in the world. It has 16 member states: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, with the host state of Chile and a partner strategic.

    As with Australia… ESO carries out an ambitious program focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground observation facilities to allow astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in the promotion and rationalization of cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observation sites in Chile. La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. In Paranál, ESO operates two topographic telescopes, together with the Vary Large Telescope and its world-leading Very Large Telescope Interferometer. Which operate in the VISTA infrared and VLT telescopes of visible light.

    largest astronomical project

    The ESO Paranal will also house and operate the largest and most sensitive gamma ray observatory in the world Cherenkov Telescope Array South. ESO is an important partner in two facilities in Chajnantor, APEX and ALMA, the largest astronomical project that exists and in the area of the serene arm, near Paranal, ESO is building the extremely large 39-meter telescope, ELT. Which will become the largest eye sky in the world. Rosetta is an ESA mission. It was launched in 2004 and was studied in 2014 with comet 67P / Churyumov – Gerasimenko while spinning around the Sun. It also deployed.

    The fusion of old and new microscopy offers the best 3D view inside cells: Combining electron microscopy (MS) with scientists from the latest super resolution microscopy (SR). The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) and UC Berkeley to get detailed insights on the complex differences of all 3D cells. In a report in the journal Science Issue. The researchers described their technique, called cryo-SR / EM, and showed some of the colorful images they captured. These include detailed photographs of sunken vesicles that are loaded and classified in the cell. Views of a fragile network that connects neighboring neurons in the brain and images of the reorganization of DNA in the nucleus as a stem cell in a neuron.

    The cell is an incredibly complex self-replicating machine with billions of moving parts: molecules. Every imaging technology sees this machine in different but imperfect ways. Co-author Eric Betzig, molecular and cellular. Said a professor of biology and physics at UC Berkeley and a researcher at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. We bring together two different imaging modalities, since we have Cryo-A R and with MS, it causes penetration into the cellular structure in the nanoscale, which cannot be achieved alone.

    Optical microscopy for example, facilitates the identification of specific cellular structures by labeling them with easy-to-see fluorescent molecules. With the development by Betzig and others of super resolution fluorescence microscopy (SR), these structures can be seen more clearly. But fluorescence can reveal only a few of the more than 10,000 protein molecules in a cell at any given time and making it difficult to understand how they relate to certain other things. Electron microscopy, on the other hand, reveals all cellular structures in high-resolution images.

    senior scientist Gleib Schtezel

    But it can be difficult to characterize one characteristic of all others only by MS because the space inside the cells is very full. The combination of the two techniques gives scientists a clearer picture of the specific cellular characteristics related to their environment said Harald Hess. A senior group leader at the HHMI Genelia Research Campus. It’s a very powerful way. Genelia’s scientific researcher David Hoffman and senior scientist Gleib Schtezel led the project under the leadership of Hayes and Betzig, who are also senior colleagues of Genelia.

    NASA was tested in the New Moon Rover’s Lunar Operation Laboratory. An engineering model of the Voltile that explores the Polar Exploration Rover, or VIPER, has been tested at the Simulated Lunar Operation Laboratory at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. About the size of a golf cart, VIPER is a mobile robot that will walk around the Moon’s South Pole, searching for water ice in the region and, for the first time, taking samples of water ice on the ice itself. Where the man will land in 2024 as the first woman and the next Artemis show. The large adjustable clay container holds the lunar cement and allows engineers to mimic the terrain of the moon.

    Engineers at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, where the rover was designed and manufactured, joined Glenn’s team to complete the tests. The test data will be used to assess vehicle and wheel traction, determine power requirements for different types of maneuvers, and compare methods of crossing steep slopes. The researchers use new research to protect themselves against the air silica present during the tests. VIPER is a collaboration inside and outside the agency. NASA’s Ames Research Center managed the project in Silicon Valley, leading mission science, systems engineering, real-time mobile surface operations and software.

    science and technology

    Rover’s equipment is provided by NASA’s KennedySpace Center in Ames, Florida, and its business partner, Honeybee .. RoboticsCalifornia. The spacecraft, lander, and launch vehicle that will deliver VIPER to the surface of TheMoonwill will be provided through NASA’s Commercial Lunar Charge Services program, which will deliver science and technology payloads to and near the Moon. NASA was tested in the New Moon Rover’s Lunar Operation Laboratory. The volatiles testing the Polar Exploration Rover (VIPER) engineering model are being tested.

    CLEVELAND (NASA PR) – The engineering model of a simulated polar exploration explorer or VIPER is tested at the Selected Lunar Operation Laboratory at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. About the size of a golf cart, VIPER is a mobile robot that will walk around the Moon’s South Pole, searching for water ice in the region and, for the first time, taking samples of water ice on the ice itself. Where the man will land in 2024 as the first woman and the next Artemis show. The large adjustable clay container holds the lunar cement and allows engineers to mimic the terrain of the moon.

    Engineers at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, where the rover was designed and manufactured, joined Glenn’s team to complete the tests. The test data will be used to assess vehicle and wheel traction, determine power requirements for different types of maneuvers, and compare methods of crossing steep slopes. The researchers use researchers to protect themselves against the air silica present during the tests. VIPER is a collaboration inside and outside the agency. NASA’s Ames Research Center in Silicon Valley leads project management, mission science, systems engineering, real-time mobile surface operations, and software.

    polar explorer

    Rover’s equipment is provided by NASA’s KennedySpace Center in AIIMS, Florida, and Honeybee Robotics, a business partner in California. The spacecraft, lander, and launch vehicle that will deliver VIPER to the surface of TheMoonwill will be provided through NASA’s Commercial Lunar Charge Services program. Which will deliver science and technology payloads to and near the Moon. NASA was tested in the New Moon Rover Lunar Operation Laboratory. A volatile engineering model probing a polar explorer or VIPER is tested in the Simulated Lunar Operation Laboratory at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio.

    About the size of a golf cart, VIPER is a mobile robot that will rotate around the Moon’s South Pole, searching for water ice in the region and for the first time, taking samples of water ice at the same pole where Man She will land in 2024 as the first woman and the next Artemis program. The large adjustable clay container holds the lunar cement and allows engineers to mimic the terrain of the moon. Engineers at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston. Where the rover was designed and built, joined Glenn’s team to complete the tests. The test data will be used to assess vehicle and wheel traction and determine power requirements for different types of maneuvers, and compare methods of crossing steep slopes.

    The researchers use researchers to protect against the air silica present during the tests. VIPER is a collaboration inside and outside the agency. NASA’s Ames Research Center managed the project in Silicon Valley, leading mission science, systems engineering, real-time mobile surface operations, and software. Rover’s equipment is provided by NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Ames, Florida, and its business partner, Honeybee Robotics in California. The spacecraft, lander, and launch vehicle that will transport VIPER to the surface of TheMoonwill will be provided through NASA’s Commercial Lunar Charge Services program, which will deliver science and technology payloads to and near the Moon.

    brown dwarf W1200-7845

    A Team Of Professional Astronomers And Civil Scientists. A Team Of Professional Astronomers And Civil Scientists. Astronomers find a young brown dwarf with a circumstellar disk. A team of professional astronomers and civil scientists have observed a young brown dwarf with a disk that could make an exoplanet. Called W1200-7845, the object is about 333 light years distant from Earth and is a member of the 3.7 million-year-old Epsilon Chamelenotis star cluster. Artist’s impression of the brown dwarf W1200-7845 and its disk. W1200-7845 was discovered through Disk Detective.

    A citizen science project funded by NASA and hosted by Zoonvers that provides images of objects in space to classify the public. Those objects. In order to discover which disks are possible stars that could possibly host planets. Citizen scientists can look through ‘flipbook’ books – images of the same object in space taken by NASA’s Wide Field Infrared Recognition Explorer (WISE) that detects infrared emission, such as thermal radiation delivered by the thermal radiation and traces of dust on stellar disks.

    Astronomers find a young brown dwarf

    A user can classify an object based on certain criteria, such as whether the object is elliptical (a shape that resembles a galaxy) or round (a sign that the object is probably a star that is hosting the disk). We have many civilian scientists who look at each object and give their own independent opinion and rely on the wisdom of the crowd to decide whether things are probably galaxies and what things are possibly stars with disks around them and they are, said the co-author. Dr. Steven. Silverberg, postdoctoral researcher at the Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research in Mav. From there, professional astronomers follow discs classified by crowds, using more sophisticated methods and binoculars to determine if they really are discs and what characteristics they may have.

    In the case of W1200-7845, civilian scientists first classified the object as a disk in 2016. Dr. Silverberg and his colleagues took a closer look at the source with an infrared instrument on a 6.5m Magellan telescope at the Las Campson Observatory. With these new observations, he determined that the source was actually a disk around a brown dwarf within the moving Cha group. One of several young mobile groups scattered across the southern sky. W1200-7845 is also very close to Earth, at a distance of approximately 333 light years, making it the youngest known young dwarf. When it’s that close, we consider it within the solar neighborhood, said co-author Maria Shutte, a graduate student at the University of Oklahoma.

    Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA)

    This proximity is really important, because brown dwarfs are lower in mass and naturally less bright than other objects like stars. So the closer we are to these objects. The more details we can see. Scientists now plan to further expand W1200-7845 with other telescopes such as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). They expect to see the discs of the brown dwarfs to measure their mass and radius. The mass of a disc tells you how much material is on the disc. Which tells us that if planets are built around these systems, and what kind of planets will you be able to produce, “Dr. Silverberg said.” You can also use that data to determine what type of gas is in the system that will inform you of the disk structure.

    The researchers reported this discovery today at the 236th meeting of the American Astronomical Society (AAS). Astronomers revealed the secret of Om Peter Pan’s protoplanetary disk. The Peter Pan disk is a recently discovered class of long-lived protoplanetary disks around low-mass stars that live 5 to 10 times longer than typical protoplanetary disks. Since astronomers knew about the existence of these disks since 2016. There have been questions about how and why they have lived for so long and the implications of how the planetary form has been abandoned. WISE J080822.18-644357.3 Art print of Peter Pan Disc, a red dwarf located about 331 light years from Earth in the constellation Carina.

    Physics and Astronomy

    The existence of long-playing disks was truly amazing and discovering that these disks could live longer than expected would help us understand the evolution of the disk and the formation of planets in general. It may be important to – Dr. Thomas Howarth, said an Astronomer at the School of Physics and Astronomy at Queen Mary University of London. One particularly interesting thing is that the Peter Pan discs so far have only been found around low-mass stars. These low-mass stars generally harbor many planets.

    The largest disk we need to end the Peter Pan disk may be an important component that allows these planets to exist. In the study, Drs. Howarth and colleagues, Drs. Gavin Coleman used computer simulations to look at possible early settings and methods in which Peter Pan develops discs to reveal the combination of conditions necessary to create a disc, which are called “Neverland parameters”. They discovered that these discs are only in solitary environments, away from other stars, and need a much larger start than normal discs. Dr. Coleman also told Physics and Astronomy at Queen Mary University of London.

    Most stars form in large groups with around 100,000 stars, but it seems that Peter Pan discs cannot form in these environments. They must be very isolated from their stellar neighbors because radiation from other cables will explode these discs. They also need to start on a larger scale, so they have more gas to lose and therefore can last much longer. The study was published in the Astronomical Society.

    NASA tests new moon rover
    NASA tests new moon rover’s moves in lunar lab
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    The Researchers Found That The Lifespan Of The Neutrons

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    The lifespan of the neutrons
    The Researchers Found That The Lifespan Of The Neutrons

    The Researchers Found That The Lifespan Of The Neutrons. The lifespan of the neutrons was 780 seconds. NASA’s messaging mission performs spatial measurements of neutron lives. Using data acquired in 2007 and 2008 during the Venus and Mercury flybys by NASA’s Messenger spacecraft, the researchers found that the lifespan of the neutrons was 780 seconds. Atmospheric rays from the universe separate Venus’s atmosphere from neutrons that slowly fly into space. As neutrons move to higher altitudes, more time passes and more neutrons decay radioactively.

    the lifespan of the neutrons

    Messenger counted the number of neutrons observed at different altitudes, allowing researchers to visit the home where neutron numbers begin to decline. Using the model, researchers can estimate the lifespan of neutrons. Image credit: Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory. Atmospheric rays from the universe separate Venus’s atmosphere from neutrons that slowly fly into space. As neutrons move to higher altitudes, more time passes and more neutrons decay radioactively. Messenger counted the number of neutrons observed at different altitudes, allowing researchers to visit the home where neutron numbers begin to decline.

    Using the model, researchers can estimate the lifespan of neutrons. Image credit: Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory. The lifespan of free neutrons provides a critical examination of standard models of particle physics and also affects the relative abundance of hydrogen and helium formed in the early Universe, just minutes after the Big Bang. So it has broad implications , Dr. Vincent AK, scientist at the Institute for Computational Cosmology at Durham University. Space-based methods offer the possibility of breaking the deadlock between two Earth-based measurement techniques.

    NASA’s Messenger spacecraft

    Neutrons are normally found in the nucleus of an atom but they quickly decay into electrons and protons outside the atom. Physicists have previously used two laboratory-based methods: the “bottle method” and the beam technique to determine and determine the lifespan of neutrons. The bottle method traps neutrons in a bottle and measures how long it takes for their radioactivity to break down. This suggests that neutrons can live on average for 879 seconds. The beam technique, which fires a neutron beam and counts the number of protons created by radioactive decay, takes about 888 seconds.

    While this may seem like a small difference, scientists say the difference can be huge. Since a standard model of particle physics requires approximately 879 seconds of neutron lifespan, any deviation from this would cause a fundamental change in our understanding of this model. The Lifespan Of The Neutrons was 780 sec, messenger placed a neutron spectrometer to detect neutrons colliding with atoms on the surface of Mercury as part of an investigation to determine the existence of water on the planet. On its way, the spacecraft first flew from Venus, where it collected neutron measurements for the first time.

    Atmospheric rays

    “Although the messenger was designed for other purposes, we were still able to use the data to estimate the lifespan of neutrons,” said Dr. Jacob Kigeris of the Institute for Computational Cosmology at Durham University: The spacecraft observed a wide variety of heights above the surfaces of Venus and Mercury, allowing us to measure how neutron flux changes with distance from planets. Using the model, the researchers estimated that the number of neutron messengers for the lifespan of the neutrons should be at their height above Venus and be between 600 and 1,020 seconds.

    For short lives, too few neutrons survive long enough to reach the messenger’s neutron detector. With an uncertainty of approximately 130 seconds due to statistical and other uncertainties, they found that the lifespan of neutrons is 780 seconds. So the number of neutrons changes during the day and the uncertainty about the chemical composition of the surface of Mercury. Researcher at the Johns Hopkins Laboratory of Applied Sciences, Dres. Jack Wilson said: It is like experimenting with a large bottle, but instead of using walls and magnetic fields, we use the gravity of Venus to define neutrons several times for our lives.

    Venus’s atmosphere

    The first spatial measurements of neutron lives were completed with the NASA spacecraft. Scientists first discovered a way to measure the lifespan of neutrons from space. A discovery that can teach us more about the early universe. Knowing the lifespan of neutrons is important for understanding the creation of elements after the Big Bang since the creation of the universe 13.8 billion years ago. Scientists from Durham University, USA And the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory used data from NASA’s MErcury Surface, Space Enforcement, Geochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft to make their discovery.

    When Messenger flew over Venus and Mercury, he measured the speeds at which the neutron particles were leaving two planets. The number of neutrons detected depended on the time it took for the spacecraft to fly relative to the neutron’s lifespan, giving scientists a way to calculate how long subatomic particles lived. The findings, published in the Journal of Physical Review Research, may provide a route to end decades of ongoing stagnation that has seen researchers disagree, from a few seconds, to how long neutrons can survive. Dr. at the Institute for Computational Cosmology at Durham University.

    neutrons

    Vincent AK said: “The neutron-free lifespan provides a critical examination of standard models of particle physics, and also affects the relative abundance of hydrogen and helmets that form on it.” The early universe just after the Big Bang, therefore, has widespread effects. “Space-based methods offer the possibility of breaking the deadlock between two Earth-based measurement techniques.” Neutrons are normally found in the nucleus of an atom, but they quickly decay into electrons and protons outside the atom. Scientists have previously used two laboratory-based methods, the so-called “bottle method” and “beam” techniques, to determine and determine the lifespan of neutrons.

    The bottle method, which traps neutrons in a bottle and measures how long it takes for their radioactivity to decompose, suggests that they can live on average 14 minutes and 39 seconds. Using an alternative beam technique, which fires a neutron beam and counts the number of protons created by radioactive decay, provides approximately 14 minutes and 48 seconds, nine seconds, compared to the bottle method. While this may seem like a small difference, scientists say the difference can be huge. Since a standard model of particle physics requires approximately 14 minutes and 39 seconds for the life of neutrons, any deviation from this would cause a fundamental change in our understanding of this model.

    estimate the lifespan of neutrons

    The artist’s schematic of how messenger provided data to estimate the lifespan of neutrons. Atmospheric rays from the universe separate Venus’s atmosphere from neutrons that slowly fly into space. As neutrons move to higher altitudes, more time passes and more neutrons decay radioactively. Messenger counted the number of “observed” neutrons at different altitudes, allowing the researchers to travel to the house where the neutron numbers begin to drop. Using the model, researchers can estimate the lifespan of neutrons. Messenger placed a neutron spectrometer to detect neutrons colliding with atoms on the surface of Mercury as part of an investigation to determine the existence of water on the planet.

    On its way, the spacecraft first flew from Venus, where it collected neutron measurements for the first time. Dr. at the Institute for Computational Cosmology at Durham University. Jacob Kygaris stated: Although Messenger was designed for other purposes, we were able to use the data to estimate the lifespan of neutrons. The spacecraft observed a wide variety of heights above the surfaces of Venus and Mercury, allowing us to measure how neutron flux changes with distance from planets. Using the model, the team estimated that the number of neutron messengers for the lifespan of the neutrons should be at their height above Venus and be between 10 and 17 minutes.

    range of estimates

    For short lives, too few neutrons survive long enough to reach the messenger’s neutron detector. They found that the lifespan of neutrons is 13 minutes, with an uncertainty of about 130 seconds due to statistical and other uncertainties, such as the number of neutrons that change during the day and the uncertainty about the chemical composition of the surface of Mercury. Their estimated neutron lifespan is close to the range of estimates for the “bottle” and “beam” method. Lead author of the Johns Hopkins Laboratory of Applied Physics, Drs. Jack Wilson said: “It is like a big bottle experiment, but instead of using walls and magnetic fields, we use the gravity of Venus to limit comparable neutrons to their lives.

    As systematic errors in space-based measurements are not related to bottle and beam methods. The researchers said their new method could provide a way to break the deadlock between existing and competing measurements. The researchers said that more accurate measurements would likely require a dedicated space mission around the planet Venus in the form of its dense atmosphere and high-mass trap neutrons. They hope to design and manufacture a device that can make a high-precision measurement of neutron lifespan using their new Technology. “Space-based measurement of neutron lifespan using neutron spectrometer data on NASA’s Messenger mission” by Physical Review Research. The findings were published in the journal Physical Review Research.

    The lifespan of the neutrons
    The Researchers Found That The Lifespan Of The Neutrons
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    The New Panorama Combines More Than 1,000 Images

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    The new panorama combines
    The New Panorama Combines More Than 1,000 Images

    The New Panorama Combines More Than 1,000 Images, the new panorama combines more than 1,000 images with the Curiosity Mast camera (Mastcam). It shows 1.8 billion pixels of the Martian landscape and Glen Torridone, located on the edge of Mount Sharp, exploring curiosity. Curiosity Capturing a 1.8 billion pixel panorama of the Martian surface. NASA’s Mars Rover curiosity has captured its higher resolution landscape. NASA’s Mars Rover curiosity has captured its highest resolution panorama (high resolution file, 2.43 GB) to date on the Martian surface.

    the new panorama combines

    The images were taken between November 24 and December 1, 2019, when the mission team was on Thanksgiving holiday. Sitting down to perform certain tasks while waiting for the researchers to return and provide their next orders. The rover had a rare opportunity to obtain images of his environment from the same strategic point for several days in a row. Curiosity captured this panorama of the surface of Mars between November 24 and December 1, 2019. The new panorama, curiosity required more than 6.5 hours for four days to capture individual scenes.

    Mastcam operators sorted the list of complex tasks, including pointing to the mast of the mobile and making sure the images were focused. To ensure constant lighting, the images were limited between noon and 2 o’clock. Local time every Tuesday. The Scientific Curiosity Project of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Dr. Ashwin Vasavada said: When many of our team enjoyed the turkey, Curiosity prepared the feast for the eyes. This is the first time during the mission that we dedicate our operations to a 360-degree stereo the new panorama combines.

    combine panoramic photos

    Curiosity also produced low-resolution panoramas of approximately 650 million pixels and including the robot platform and the robot arm. Curiosity Rover captures the high-resolution panorama of your home on Mars. NASA’s Curiosity Rover has pleased those on Earth with stunning photos of Mars since it landed in 2012 but its latest image is a detailed panorama that surpasses all others, united using more than a thousand photographs. Best moments on Mars: In 2019, Curiosity captured Thanksgiving photos with telephoto lenses on Rovers’ cool camera.

    Together, the images include 1.8 billion pixels. The images were captured by Curiosity between November 24 and December 1. Curiosity “worked” during the Thanksgiving break. While his team from Earth took the time to enjoy the break. Before the team left, they sent orders to set up their cameras and make sure their images were sharp. The Curiosity rover finds evidence of the ancient salt lakes of Mars. After that, Curiosity had no other wait orders, so the rover stood still and ran away. Each day, at a four-day interval, the rover took pictures between noon and 2 p.m.

    combine photos to make a panorama

    Therefore, the local time will be consistent with the lighting photographs. Both panoramas reveal Glen Torridan’s current curiosity house. It is an area near Mount Sharp named for the North West Highlands of Scotland which has the oldest rocks in the world. Curiosity Rover takes a new selfie while doing a chemistry experiment. Curiosity Rover takes a new selfie while doing a chemistry experiment. On Mars, Glen Torridon is full of difficult clay mineral deposits that are watching curiosity. It is located in Gayle Crater.

    A huge, dry ancient lake bed with a 16,404-foot mountain in the center. The top of Mount Sharp is longer than the rim of the crater. The streams and lakes were likely filled with hail craters millions of years ago. So NASA launched the rover there in 2012. While many in our team were enjoying the turkey. Curiosity produced this feast for the eyes, said Ashwin Vasavada. A scientist of the project in Curiosity, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This is the first time during the mission that we have dedicated our work to a 360-degree stereo panorama.

    combine multiple photos into one panorama

    Teams on Earth carefully assemble the images for the new panorama combines. A special tool on the JPL site allows you to zoom in. background details Curiosity also shared a 1.3 billion pixel panorama in 2013 when rocks was collected. NASA will send autonomous helicopter to Mars. Mars Helicopter. A demonstration of technology that will travel to the Red Planet with NASA’s Mars 2020 rover, will attempt a controlled flight in thin Martian environments. Image of NASA’s Mars helicopter by NASA / JPL-Caltech.

    Exploring the red planet with NASA’s Mars helicopter exemplifies a successful marriage of scientific and technological innovation and there is a unique opportunity to pursue the search for Mars for the future. Drs. Thomas Zurbuchen is Associate Administrator of the Scientific Mission Directorate at the agency’s headquarters in Washington, NASA. Started as a Technological development project at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in August 2013, the Mars helicopter had to prove that big things could come in small packages.

    combine photos into panorama

    The four years of design, testing and redesign of the equipment result in less than 1.8 kg. Its torso is approximately the size of a softball and its counter-rotating twin blades will bite in Martian environments at approximately 3,000 rpm, approximately 10 times the speed of a helicopter on Earth. The helicopter also includes the capabilities needed to operate on Mars. Including solar cells to charge its lithium-ion batteries, and a heating mechanism to keep it warm during the cold night. Mars helicopter project manager at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Dr. Mimi Aung said:

    The helicopter flight log here on Earth has an altitude record of approximately 40,000 feet (12.2 km). The atmosphere of Mars is only 1% of the Earth, so when our helicopter is on the Martian surface. It is already on Earth equal to 100,000 feet (30.5 km). To make it fly at that low atmospheric density. We had to investigate everything, be as strong and powerful as possible, to make it lighter. Once the Mars rover is on the surface of 2020, a suitable location will be found to deploy and land the helicopter under the vehicle.

    autonomous flight in history

    The rover will move a safe distance from the helicopter from where it will transmit the command. After charging your battery and performing numerous tests, the controllers on Earth will order the helicopter to make its first autonomous flight in history. Dr. Aang said: We don’t have a pilot and the Earth will be several light minutes away, so there is no way to control this mission in real time. Instead, we have an autonomous capability that can receive and interpret commands from the ground, and then fly the mission by itself.

    The full 30-day flight test expedition would include up to five consecutive flight flights for the duration, a distance of a few hundred feet and a longer duration of up to 90 seconds. On its first flight, the helicopter will make a short steep climb of up to 10 feet (3 m).
    Where it will travel for about 30 seconds. As a demonstration of technology. The Mars helicopter is considered a high risk and high reward project.

    panoramic view from a Marscopter

    If this does not work, the Mars 2020 mission will not be affected. If it works, the real future of helicopters may be in the form of low-flying explorers And aerial vehicles not far from land travel. The ability to see clearly that it is beyond the next hill is important for future explorers, said Dr. Zurbuchen. We already have excellent views of Mars from the surface, as well as from orbit. With the additional dimension of a panoramic view from a Marscopter, ‘we can only imagine what future missions will achieve.

    The new panorama combines
    The New Panorama Combines More Than 1,000 Images
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    Asteroid Vesta has a turbulent past, a new study

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    Asteroid Vesta has a turbulent past
    Asteroid Vesta has a turbulent past, a new study by researchers from the University of Curtin highlights the first days of Vesta

    Asteroid Vesta has a turbulent past, a new study by researchers from the University of Curtin highlights the first days of Vesta. A new study by researchers at the University of Curtin highlights the first days of Vesta. The second largest asteroid in the main belt and the fourth object that was discovered as such. When NASA’s Dawn spacecraft flies to its next destination.

    Asteroid Vesta

    It synthesizes some of the best ideas of the giant asteroid of a mosaic spacecraft. Studied Asteroid Vesta from July 2011 to September 2012.
    The huge mountain at the South Pole and twice the height of Mount Everest appears at the bottom of the image. The set of three craters known as ‘snowmen’ can be seen from the upper left. Image from NASA / JPL-Caltech as NASA’s Dawn spacecraft leaves for its next destination. This mosaic synthesizes some of the best ideas that the giant asteroid Vesta had in the spacecraft.

    Don studied Vesta from July 2011 to September 2012. The huge mountain at the South Pole and more than twice the height of Mount Everest is visible at the bottom of the image. The set of three craters known as ‘snowmen’ can be seen from the upper left. Discovered by Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers on March 29, 1807. Vesta is the only asteroid of the visible main belt without eyes. It rotates once in 5.34 hours and orbits around the Sun in 3.63 years.

    vesta asteroid

    It has an ellipsoidal shape with radial dimensions of 286 x 279 x 223 km. Due to its large size, Vesta is considered a differentiated body with a nucleus and a mantle like our own planet. Collisions between asteroids in the belt allow them to drop their orbits and travel great distances in our solar system, possibly colliding with other planetary objects. The lead author of the study, Professor Fred Jersdan, said: Vesta is of great interest to scientists trying to learn more about what planets are made of and how they evolved.

    Vesta is the only predominantly intact Asteroid that exhibits complete discrimination with a metal core. A silicate mantle and a thin basaltic crust, and is also very small. In a sense, it is like a child planet, and therefore it is easier for scientists to understand than to say, a large, large and rocky planet. Vesta was visited by NASA’s Dawn spacecraft in 2011. When it was observed that the asteroid had a more complex geological history than before.

    vesta asteroid astrology

    Hoping to understand more about the asteroid, Professor Jordan and his colleagues analyzed well-preserved specimens of volcanic meteorites found in Antarctica. Which were identified as falling from Vesta to Earth. Using an argon-argon dating technique, we obtained a very precise age series for meteorites, which gave us four very important pieces of new information about the timeline in Vesta, explained Professor Jordan. First, the data showed that Vesta was volcanically active for at least 30 million years after its original formation.

    Which occurred 4,565 million years ago. While this may sound short, it is actually much longer than most predicted numerical models, and was unpredictable for such a small asteroid. Since all the radioactive elements that provide heat, such as aluminum-26, would have completely decomposed at that time, our research suggests that the magma bags should have survived in the vesta and possibly slow cooling. The layer of Asteroids was related to the partial magma that occurs.

    where is asteroid vesta now

    The study was co-author of Drs. The investigation also showed deadlines when large asteroid impacts ejected craters ten or more kilometers from the active crust of the Vista volcano, said Trudy Kennedy. To put it in perspective, imagine destroying a large asteroid on the main volcanic island of Hawaii and digging a well 15 kilometers deep. Which gives you an idea of what a show in Vesta is in the early days of our solar system It had happened.

    The scientists searched the data more to understand what was happening in the asteroid, how long it took for Vesta’s deep crust layer to cool. Some of these rocks were located too deep in the crust to be affected by asteroid impacts, and yet, being close to the mantle. They were greatly affected by the protoplanet’s natural heat gradient and metamorphosed. What makes it interesting is that our data corroborates the suggestion that the first flow of cracked lava in the Vesta was recently buried in its crust by lava flows, essentially placing them on top of each other.

    vesta asteroid images

    To maintain. Modifying the rocks, they were cooked with the heat of the protoplanet mantle, Dr. Kennedy said. The team also concluded that the meteorites they analyzed were excavated in the Vesta 3.5 million years ago during a major impact and were sunk deeply into a debris pile asteroid. Where they were later discovered, it was also saved from impact. An asteroid from a pile of rubble is formed when a group of emitted rocks assemble under its own gravity, creating an asteroid that essentially collides with a pile of rocks.

    This is very exciting for us because our new data brings a lot of new information about the first 50 million years or the early history of Vesta. Which any future model must take into account, Kennedy said. It also raises the point that if the volcano could last longer in the protoplanet, perhaps the volcano itself could be more energetic on primitive Earth than we currently think. The findings were published in the March 2020 issue of the Journal Science.

    K2-18b super-earth exoplanet
    K2-18b super-earth exoplanet can have perfect conditions for life

    K2-18b super-earth exoplanet can have perfect conditions for life. The K2-18b Super-Earth Exoplanet Can Have Perfect Conditions For Life, A Team Of Astronomers From The Institute Of Astronomy At The University Of Cambridge, UK. A team of astronomers from the Institute of Astronomy at the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, discovered that K2-18b. A planet of approximately nine Earth masses in orbit around the red dwarf K2-18, is potentially habitable.

    K2-18b super-earth exoplanet

    The perception of this artist shows the planets K2-18b & c and their host stars Image by NASA / ESA / Hubble K2-18 is an M-type star located 111 light years away in the constellation Leo. Also known as EPIC 201912552 and the star houses two large planets: K2-18b and c. Discovered in 2015, the K2-18b has an Earth radius of 2.6 times and is approximately 8.6 times larger. The planet orbits the original star at a distance of approximately 0.15 AU every 33 days and has an Earth Parity Index of 0.73.

    In 2019, two different teams reported the detection of water vapor in the hydrogen-rich atmosphere of K2-18b. However, the limit and internal conditions of the bottom of the atmosphere remained unknown. Water vapor has been detected in the atmosphere in a volatile region. Although the planet is in a habitable zone, it does not mean that there are habitable conditions on the surface, said Dr. Nikku Madhusudan, lead author, said The Study. To establish the possibilities of habitation.

    It is important to obtain a unified understanding of the internal and atmospheric conditions on the planet, specifically. The K2-18b Super-Earth Exoplanet, if liquid water can exist under the atmosphere. Given the larger size of the K2-18b, it has been suggested that it would be more like a smaller version of Neptune than a larger version of the Earth. It is expected that a ‘mini-Neptune’ has a large ‘envelope’ of hydrogen that surrounds a layer of high pressure water with an inner core of rock and iron.

    Astronomers

    If the hydrogen envelope is too thick, the temperature and surface pressure below the water layer will be too high to support life. Now Dr. Madhusudan and his colleagues have shown that despite the size of K2-18b. Its hydrogen envelope is not necessarily very thick and the water layer may be the right position to support life. Astronomers used existing observations of the atmosphere and as well as mass and radius, to determine the structure and composition of the atmosphere and the interior using detailed numerical models and statistical methods to interpret the data.

    They confirmed that the atmosphere is rich in hydrogen with significant amounts of water vapor. They also discovered that the levels of other chemicals such as methane and ammonia were lower than expected for such environments. Can these levels be attributed to biological processes, then, the researchers used atmospheric properties as boundary conditions to model the interior of the planets. He discovered several models that could explain the atmospheric properties, as well as the planet’s mass and radius.

    This allowed them to derive the range of potential conditions in the internal environment. Including the extent of the hydrogen envelope and the temperature and pressure in the water layer. We wanted to know the thickness of the hydrogen envelope. How deep is the hydrogen, said study co-author Matthew Nixon. While this is a question with many solutions, we have shown that not too much hydrogen is needed to explain all the comments together.

    Earth’s oceans

    The scientists found that the maximum limit of hydrogen envelopes allowed by the data is approximately 6% of the planet’s mass, although most solutions require very little. The minimum amount of hydrogen is approximately one millionth in mass. Which is similar to the mass fraction of the Earth’s atmosphere. In particular, with liquid water under the atmosphere at the pressures and temperatures found in the Earth’s oceans, many scenarios allow ocean water. The findings will be published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.

    Listening decisively No foreign signals were detected from interstate comet 2I / Borisov, Hubble captured 2I / Borisov on December 9, 2019. Breakthrough Listen, the largest scientific research program aimed at finding evidence of intelligent life beyond Earth. Published data from its observations of 2I / Borisov, an interstellar comet that had a close encounter with our Sun in December 2019. Hubble captured 2I / Borisov on December 9, 2019. Shortly after the closest approach to the Sun.

    Where he gained maximum heat after spending most of his life in the middle of the refrigerator. Shortly after his closest approach to the Sun, where he spent most of his life in the icy interstellar space, he reached maximum heat. 2I / Borisov was discovered by Ukrainian amateur astronomer Gennady Borisov on August 30, 2019. Also known as C / 2019 Q4, the comet formed in a planetary system beyond us and shot into interstellar space as a result of a close collision with a planet in its parent system.

    star system

    2I / Borisov has taken the form of “ghostly” after starting to react to the sun’s warming. The comet moved closer to the Sun on December 8, 2019, which is about 293 million kilometers (182 million miles) from our star. In mid-2020, he will return to interstellar space, where he will travel for millions of years, one day before approaching a star system. If interstellar travel is possible and if other civilizations are out. If they are motivated to build an interstellar probe.

    Then some fractions are greater than zero. Which are artificial interstellar devices,” said Steve Croft, Berkeley SETI research center. An astronomer with decisive listening. As we do with our measurement of transmitters on extrasolar planets, we want to maintain a limit on that number. Dr. Croft and his colleagues look for electromagnetic radiation that corresponds to a signal that we know is produced by and that is inconsistent with the background noise of astrological events.

    This requires the elimination of signals from cell phones, satellites, GPS, Internet, WiFi and many other human sources. The Breakthrough Listen team intends to analyze all published data, systematically and iteratively. Only 20% of the captured data has been analyzed as such. The group first scanned the interstellar rock, Omumua, which passed through the center of our solar system in 2017. Neither of them was technically proven. NASA’s incredible simulation reveals what Earth would look like if the oceans drain.

    Planetary scientist

    The oceans cover most of the Earth, including its longest mountain range and the ancient bridges that humans crossed to reach other continents. In a new version of a 2008 NASA video. Planetary scientist James O’Donoghue shows what it would look like if all the water was drained, revealing the three fifth hidden parts of the Earth’s surface. O’Donoghue works at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and was previously at NASA.

    For the video, he took an animation that NASA physicist and animator Horace Mitchell created in 2008 and gave him some additions. He edited the time and added a tracker to show the amount of water drained throughout the animation. As the oceans slowly lose water, the first pieces of hidden land that emerge are the continental platforms at the underwater edges of each continent. I slowed the startup speed because, surprisingly. There is a lot of underwater landscape instantly revealed in the first tens of meters.

    planet’s poles

    O’Donoghue told Business Insider in an email. The continental shelves include some of the land bridges that the first humans crossed while migrating from continent to continent. Tens of thousands of years ago, our ancestors could walk from continental Europe to the United Kingdom, from Siberia to Alaska and from Australia to the surrounding islands. When the last ice age occurred, a lot of ocean water was locked like ice at the planet’s poles.

    That’s why there used to be land bridges, O’Donoghue said. Each of these links allowed humans to migrate, and when the ice age ended, water sealed them. By removing that water, the animation offers a glimpse into the world of our ancient ancestors. It also shows the longest mountain range on Earth. Which appears once sea levels have dropped from 2,000 to 3,000 meters (6,500 to 9,800 feet). That is the crest of the middle ocean, which spans more than 37,000 miles (60,000 kilometers) worldwide. More than 90 percent are underwater.

    Earth’s tectonic plates

    The volcanic mountains arise from the seams where Earth’s tectonic plates move away from each other, creating a new ocean floor as molten rock rises beneath the plant’s crust. Once the animated oceans drain 6,000 meters (20,000 feet), most of the water is gone. But it takes almost another 5,000 meters (16,000 feet) to empty the deepest sections of the Mariana Trench. I like how this animation reveals that the ocean floor is as variable and interesting in its geology as the continents, said O’Donoghue.

    He added that emptying the seas digs up not only – not only the ocean floor. But also the ancient history of mankind. This article was originally published by Business Insider. More from Business Insider. Despite previous attacks, Medicare for All proved to be a big winner for Bernie Sanders for the third consecutive primary, according to polls. This is where the USA UU. It falls into the ‘Great Gatsby Curve’, a condemnatory table that economists use to track inequality in each country.

    planetary scientist James O’Donoghue

    Amazon’s ‘Hunters’ creator says he has ideas for 5 seasons of the new television series starring Al Pacino. The oceans cover most of the Earth, including its longest mountain range and the ancient bridges that humans crossed to reach other continents. In a recent remake of a NASA video in 2008, planetary scientist James O’Donoghue shows what it would look like if all the water drained. Aevealing the three-fifth hidden parts of the Earth’s surface. O’Donoghue works at the Japanese space agency, JAXA, and was previously at NASA.

    For the video, he took an animation that NASA physicist and animator Horace Mitchell created in 2008 and gave him some additions. He edited the timing and added a tracker to show how much water drained throughout the animation. Here is its slow motion version: As the oceans slowly lose water, the first pieces of hidden land that emerge are the continental shelves, the underwater edges of each continent. I slowed the startup speed because, surprisingly. There is a lot of underwater landscape instantly revealed in the first tens of meters, O’Donoghue told Business Insider in an email.

    The continental shelves include some of the land bridges that the first humans crossed while migrating from continent to continent. Tens of thousands of years ago, our ancestors could walk from continental Europe to the United Kingdom, from Siberia to Alaska, and from Australia to the surrounding islands. When the last ice age occurred, a lot of ocean water was locked like ice at the planet’s poles. That’s why there used to be land bridges, O’Donoghue said. Each of these links allowed humans to migrate.

    range on Earth

    When the ice age ended, water sealed them by removing that water, the animation offers a glimpse into the world of our ancient ancestors. It also shows the longest mountain range on Earth, which appears once sea levels have dropped from 2,000 to 3,000 meters. That is the crest of the middle ocean, which spans more than 37,000 miles worldwide. More than 90% are underwater. The volcanic mountains arise from the seams where Earth’s tectonic plates move away from each other, creating a new ocean floor as molten rock rises beneath the plant’s crust.

    Global map of the mountains of the middle ocean ridge. The almost continuous global crest system of the mid-ocean winds through the surface of the Earth like the seams of a baseball. Once the animated oceans drain 6,000 meters, most of the water is gone. But it takes almost another 5,000 meters to empty the deepest sections of the Mariana Trench. I like how this animation reveals that the ocean floor is as variable and interesting in its geology as the continents, said O’Donoghue. He added that emptying the seas unearthed not only “not only the ocean floor, but also the ancient history of mankind.”

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    Young brown dwarf in pleiades cluster of 440 light years

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    Young brown dwarf in pleiades cluster
    Young brown dwarf in pleiades cluster has companion

    Young brown dwarf in pleiades cluster has companion, the young brown dwarf mated on the playground. Astronomers have found evidence of a low-quality companion, a low-mass brown dwarf, or a giant planet, a member of the young star cluster Pleiades, which orbits around Rub 12. Artist’s impression of the Roque 12 binary system in the Pleiades group. The Pleiades are an open star cluster in the constellation Taurus at a distance of 440 light years from Earth. Also known as the Seven and Messier 45, it includes more than 800 stars and dozens of free-floating brown dwarfs with an age of approximately 120 million years.

    Young brown dwarf in pleiades cluster

    The combination of its inflation and youth makes its young brown dwarf in pleiades cluster or brown dwarfs cool down quickly and easy to spot. The brown dwarf stopped 12 for the first time in 1998 by the Dr. Uppsala Astronomical Observatory. He was seen by Leaf Festin. Also known as NPL 36, BPL 172, and EPIC 211090981 in various lists, the spectral type of the object is M7.5 and Jupiter has a mass of 63 times. Now astronomer Alex Scholz of the University of St. Andrews and his colleagues report on the discovery of a deep and unique eclipse on Roke 12.

    The incident was seen in 2002 with two telescopes at the Spanish German Astronomical Center in Calar Alto, Almería Province, Spain. It was 0.6 mag deep and lasted approximately 1.3 hours. The best explanation for the eclipse is the presence of a companion in an eccentric orbit, the astronomers said. Young brown dwarf in pleiades cluster or Brown Dwarf, they discovered that the substellar object orbits Roque 12 in less than 70 days. It is possibly a mass between 10 and 42 Jupiter masses, and therefore it can be a massive planet or a brown dwarf. Dr. Scholz and his co-authors stated.

    Young brown dwarf

    The roke12 system may be one of the few known eclipse gates in the brown dwarf domain, previously with high eccentricity and long duration. Such a system would be especially suitable for testing evolutionary models for specific objects. We help encourage the astronomical community to search for the second eclipse. The team’s work will be submitted for publication in the Open Journal of Astrophysics. Discovered the oldest brown dwarf in the Milky Way. British astronomers reporting in the Journal of Monthly Information from the Royal Astronomical Society (arXiv.org) have found two of the oldest young brown dwarf in our galaxy.

    It is a brown dwarf from an artist. Brown dwarfs are star-shaped objects, but much less massive, and do not generate internal heat through nuclear fusion like stars. This brown dwarf simply cools and fades over time, and very old brown dwarfs become very good. Two new brown dwarfs, called WISE 0013 + 0634 and WISE 0833 + 0052, were identified in a survey conducted by NASA’s Wide Field Infrared Research Explorer. WISE 0013 + 0634 and WISE 0833 + 0052 are located in the constellations of Pisces and Hydra, respectively. They move at speeds of 100-200 km per second.

    giant planet

    They are much faster than normal stars and other young brown dwarf, and are believed to have been 10 billion years ago when our galaxy was much smaller. Astronomers studied the infrared light emanating from these objects. Which are unusual compared to typical slow brown dwarfs. The spectral signatures of its light reflect its ancient atmosphere, giant planet, made almost entirely of hydrogen, with more abundant heavy elements found in young stars. “Unlike other areas of life, the oldest members of the Galaxy move much faster than their younger population,” said author Dr. David Pinfield of the University of Hertfordshire.

    The stars near the Sun are made up of three overlapping populations: thin discs, thick discs, and haloes. The thick disk is much older than the thin disk, and its stars move up and down at high speed. Both components of the disk are found within the aura that contains the remains of the galaxy’s first stars. Thin disk objects dominate the local disk, and thick disk and halo objects are much rarer. About 97 percent of local stars are members of thin discs, while only 3 percent are thick disc or halo.

    Astronomers

    Young brown dwarf population figures probably follow those chains, suggesting that these fast-moving thick disk / halo objects are now only being discovered. The thin disk of the Milky Way is believed to contain around 70 billion brown dwarfs, and the thick disks and halos occupy very large galactic volumes. Even a small local population represents a large number of ancient brown dwarfs in our galaxy. These two brown dwarfs can be the tip of an iceberg and are a difficult piece of Astronomers, astronomical archeology, Dr. Pinfield concluded.

    Planet’s nucleus of its gas atmosphere

    The newly discovered planet’s nucleus of its gas atmosphere
    The newly discovered planet’s nucleus of its gas atmosphere

    The newly discovered planet’s nucleus of its gas atmosphere. Artist’s Impression Of The Exoplanet In The Form Of Neptune. The giant planet orbited the Sun-like star TOI-849. The newly discovered planet’s nucleus, called TOI-849b, is a gas giant that was stripped of its gas atmosphere or failed to form one in its first years of life. TOI-849 is a dwarf star G, located 741 light-years away in the sculptor’s constellation. Listed as TIC33595516 and TYC 6431-1158-1, the star is slightly smaller and less massive than the Sun and is 6.7 billion years old.

    planet’s nucleus of its gas atmosphere

    TOI-849b is a smaller radius than Neptune, but with a mass of 39.1 times that of Earth, about half the mass of Saturn. The object is 3.4 times larger than our home planet and has an average density of 5.2 g / cm3 similar to Earth,. Andmaking it the densest Neptune-sized planet ever discovered. The TOI-849b has an equilibrium temperature of 1,527 ° C (2,781 ° F) and an orbital period of just 18 hours and making it an “ultra-short duration” object. The nucleus of the planets is also found in the so-called Neptune Desert.

    Astronomers

    An area close to the stars where astronomers rarely see planets of the mass of Neptune or larger. While it is an unusually massive planet, it is far from the largest scale we know of,” said Dr. David Armstrong and researcher at the Center for Exoplanets and Habitability and the Department of Physics at the University of Warwick. But it is the largest we know of for its size, and it is too dense for the size of Neptune. Which tells us that the planet has a very unusual history. The fact that it’s in a strange location because of its mass also helps:

    We don’t see planets with this mass in these short orbital periods. TOI-849b has a high density and therefore consists primarily of iron, rock, and water, but only very little hydrogen and helium, said Dr. Astronomer. An Institute of Physics at the University of Bern. Christophe Mordacini said. Such a small amount of hydrogen and helium for such a large planet is truly amazing. Hopefully a lot of hydrogen and helium will increase when this planet is formed.

    Study Satellite (TESS)

    The TOI-849b was discovered by NASA’s Transit Exoplanet Study Satellite (TESS) and then confirmed using a high-precision radial velocity planet-searching spectrograph (HARPS) mounted on a 3.6m telescope at the Observatory ESO’s Chair. There are two theories as to why we are looking at the origin of the planet, rather than a specific gas giant, astronomers said. The first is that it was once identical to Jupiter, but lost all of its external gas through various methods.

    These may include disintegrating tides, where the planet orbits very close to its star or collides with another planet. Large-scale photovapilation of the atmosphere may also play a role but it does not take into account all the gases that have been lost. Alternatively, it could be a failed gas giant, he said. We believe that once the core of the vastness of the gas is formed, something can go wrong and an atmosphere is never created. This can occur if there is a difference in the dust disk that forms from the planet.

    If it forms late and the disk is ejected from the material. We have the opportunity to see the origin of a planet in a way that we cannot do in our solar system, Drs. Armstrong said. For example, there are still big open questions about the nature of Jupiter’s origin, such that strange and unusual exoplanets give us a window into planet formation that we have no other way to explore. Although we have no idea of its chemical composition, we can follow it with other telescopes because TOI-849b is so close to the star.

    exoplanet

    The nucleus must continually replenish any remaining atmosphere around the planet. So if we can measure that environment, we can get an idea of the creation of the nucleus itself. The discovery is reported in research published in the July 1, 2020 issue of the Journal Nature. The first exoplanet to strip its main body takes only 18 hours to complete a year and burns at 1,500 ° C. Artist’s impression of a Neptune-shaped planet in Warwick / Mark Garlick’s Neptune Desert. The first exoplanet with an exposed core was discovered by scientists at the University of Warwick.

    It is so close to its star that it only takes 18 hours to complete a year with a surface temperature of 1,500 ° C. Scientists believe that it did not create an atmosphere either, its gases were removed after some time during its life cycle. An exoplanet 730 light-years away, a planet located outside of Earth’s solar system, is the first to be discovered with its original exposure. It only takes 18 hours to complete its orbit and its surface temperature is 1,500 ° C. Nicknamed TOI 849B, the planet is roughly the same size as Neptune, an anomaly for the region where it was discovered.

    similar to Jupiter

    It orbits a star similar to our sun in a region scientists call the ‘Neptune Desert’, a term used to describe a region of stars where it has little to find planets that are larger than Neptune. However, unlike Neptune, it is much hotter due to its proximity to the star. This planet is close to its star, given its mass. In other words, we don’t see planets with this mass in these short periods, said David Armstrong, lead author of the study published in Nature. This is the first time that a giant intact gas core has been detected around a star.

    • 40 times heavier than earth
    • 3.4 times larger than Earth
    • Made of iron, rock and water.
    • Very little hydrogen and helium

    Paper co-author Christophe Mordacini said: That such a large planet has such a large amount of hydrogen and helium is really very surprising. We would expect to have massive hydrogen and helium planets. Exposed without atmosphere, researchers at the University of Warwick believe that the gas giant was once similar to Jupiter, but was stripped of its gaseous atmosphere. This can be for any number of reasons, such as exploding to orbit your star or colliding with another planet.

    Another interpretation is that it is a “failed” gas giant which was never able to create the atmosphere to begin with. The fact that we don’t see those gases, we know that TOI 849B is an exposed planetary core, Armagong said. NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Exploration Satellite (TESS) found a study of stars using the TOI 849B transit method. This is when the satellite measures the brightness of a star. A drop in brightness indicates that a planet has passed through them.

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    Extremely powerful black hole outburst in distant galaxy cluster

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    Extremely powerful black hole
    Astronomers witness extremely powerful black hole outburst in distant galaxy cluster

    Astronomers witness extremely powerful black hole outburst in distant galaxy cluster. Astronomers witness explosions of extremely powerful black holes in clusters of distant galaxies. Astronomers using the NASA X-ray Observatory have observed unusual outbreak activity in the center of SPT-CLJ0528-5300 (abbreviated SPT-0528). NASA X-ray Observatory, a cluster of galaxies about 6.7 billion light years away Clusters of galaxies are some of the largest cosmic structures, joined by the combined gravitational bridge of its components.

    extremely powerful black hole

    There are thousands of galaxies of all ages, sizes and shapes. Typically, the mass of galaxy clusters is approximately one million billion times the mass of the Sun, and often extends over several million light years. NASA X-ray, they form over billions of years as small clusters of galaxies join slowly and are generally in the group of so-called superclusters, the so-called high-level strata of the structure. The largest cluster in the nucleus of most galaxy clusters is called a galaxy.

    powerful black hole outburst

    Which consists of a demonic black hole. These powerful black hole outburst undergo a period of feeding, where they collect plasma from a group, followed by a period of explosive detonation, where they shoot a stream of plasma after reaching its filling. This is an extreme case of the outbreak phase, said Michael Calzadilla. A graduate student at the MIT Kavali Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, regarding the SPT-0528 observations. According to the team, when the plasma in the central galaxy of SPT-0528 leaves a supermassive black hole.

    It pushed the material out, creating two large cavities 180 degrees from each other. By mixing the volume and pressure of the displaced gas with the age of the two cavities, Calazilla and his colleagues were able to calculate the total energy of the outbreak. With more than 1054 joules of energy, it is the extremely powerful black hole outbreak observed in a distant cluster of galaxies. The clusters would see a higher rate of star formation, which would require the formation of silent gas, they said.

    However, these clusters are not as quiet as expected and, as such, are not producing new stars at the expected speed. The gas was prevented from cooling completely. The culprits were extremely powerful black hole, whose plasma flow produces gas in the clusters of galaxies, which quickly heat up to form stars. Astronomers have considered the process of cooling gas and releasing hot gas from a black hole as a balance that maintains the constant temperature in the cluster of galaxies.

    black hole

    It’s like a thermostat, said Dr. Michael Macdonald, also of the MIT Kavali Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research. However, the black hole outbreak in the galaxy cluster SPT-0528 is not in equilibrium. If you observe the power exerted by the black hole as the gas cools, the outbreak is very high. The outbreak is very high. The outbreak SPT-0528 is a defective thermostat, said Calzadilla. “It seems you have cooled the air to 2 degrees, and the thermostat’s response was to heat the room to 100 degrees,” said Dr. McDonald.

    An article on the findings has been published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. Extremely powerful black hole astronomers explode in clusters of distant galaxies. Astronomers using NASA’s X-ray Observatory have observed an unusual outbreak activity in the center of SPT-CLJ0528-5300 (abbreviated SPT-0528), which is approximately 6.7 Billion is a cluster of galaxies. A light years away. Clusters of galaxies are some of the largest cosmic structures.

    black hole in clusters

    Which connect to the combined gravitational bridge of its components. There are thousands of galaxies of all ages, sizes and shapes. Typically, the mass of galaxy clusters (black hole in clusters) is approximately one million billion times the mass of the Sun, and often extends to several million light years. They form over billions of years as small clusters of galaxies slowly join together and typically form clusters of so-called superclusters. Which are called high-level structure levels.

    The largest cluster in the nucleus of most galaxy clusters is called a galaxy, which consists of a demonic black hole. These black holes go through a period of feeding. Where they collect plasma from a group, followed by a period of explosive explosion, where they fire a plasma stream after filling. This is an extreme case of the outbreak phase, said Michael Calzadilla. A Graduate student at the MIT Kavali Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, regarding comments from SPT-0528.

    According to the team, when the plasma in the central galaxy of SPT-0528 leaves a extremely powerful black hole. It pushes the material outward, forming 180 degrees of two large cavities with each other. By mixing the volume and pressure of the displaced gas with the age of the two cavities, Calazilla and his colleagues were able to calculate the total energy of the outbreak.

    distant galaxies

    With more than 1054 joules of energy. It is the most powerful black hole outbreak observed in a distant group of galaxies.
    Because the distant galaxies clusters are full of gas. The first theories about them predicted that as the gas cooled.
    The cluster would see a higher rate of star formation. Which would require the formation of silent gas, he said. The astronomers said, however, these clusters are not as quiet as expected.

    And such as do not produce new stars at the expected speed. The gas was prevented from cooling completely. The culprits were supermassive black holes, whose plasma flow produces gas in the clusters of galaxies. Which heat up quickly to form stars. Astronomers have considered the process of gas cooling and the release of hot gas, a black hole as equilibrium, which maintains a constant temperature in a cluster of galaxies. It’s like a thermostat, said Dr.

    Michael Macdonald of the Kavali Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research at MIT. However, the outbreak of black holes. The galaxy cluster SPT-0528 is not in equilibrium. If you observe the power emitted by a black hole because the gas is cold, its outbreak is very high, so its outbreak is very high.” SPT-0528 is a bad thermostat, McDonald said.

    Extremely powerful black hole
    Astronomers witness extremely powerful black hole outburst in distant galaxy cluster
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    A journey through time without paradox is mathematically possible

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    Paradox is mathematically possible
    A journey through time without paradox is mathematically possible

    A journey through time without paradox is mathematically possible. Traveling through time without paradoxes is mathematically possible, according to new research from the University of Queensland, time travel with free will is logically possible without any contradictions in our universe. Physicists want to understand the underlying laws of the universe. Classic dynamics says that if you know the state of a system at a particular time. You can tell us the whole story of the system, said Jermaine Tobar.

    paradox is mathematically possible

    A student at the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics at the University of Queensland. It has a wide range of applications ranging from how we allow fluids to flow to other planets and rockets. For example, if I know the current position and speed of an object falling under the force of gravity, I can calculate where it will be at any moment. However, Einstein’s theory of general relativity predicts the existence of time loops or time travel.

    contradictions in universe

    Where an event can occur both in the past and in the future, theoretically turning the study of dynamics upside down. A unified theory that can combine both traditional dynamics and Einstein’s theiry of relativity is the sacred tomb of physics. Tobar said current science says both theories cannot be true. As physicists, we want to understand the most basic underlying laws of the contradictions in universe and, over the years. I have been amazed at how the science of dynamics can intersect with Einstein’s predictions.

    time without paradox

    Is it mathematically possible to travel in time, Tobar and colleagues, Dr from the Center for Engineering Quantum Systems, School of Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Queensland. Fabio Costa, found a way to ‘square the numbers’ and can have fascinating results for calculation. The math works, and the results are similar to science fiction,” Dr. Costa said. Let’s say you traveled on time, in an effort to prevent COVID-19 patient Zero from coming into contact with the virus.

    However, if you were to prevent that person from getting infected, that would destroy the motivation to go back and stop the epidemic in the first place. This is a time without paradox, a dissonance that often leads people to think that there may be no time travel in universe. It would mean that you can travel but you can’t do anything that causes contradiction. Teamwork suggests that this should not happen in any of these situations and it is possible to adapt to events that are logically consistent with any action.

    The study was published in the journal Classical and Quantum Gravity, time travel ‘without paradoxes‘ may be possible. According to a Popular Mechanics report, researchers point out that a particular type of time travel may be possible. ScienceArt reported that no one has managed to travel through time. At least as far as we know, but whether such value would be theoretically possible to fascinate scientists or not. ScienceArt said about this question. Like movies like Terminator, Donnie Darko, Back to the Future, and many other shows.

    mathematically possible

    The rotation in time creates a lot of problems for the basic rules of the universe: If you go back in time and see your parents but mathematically possible, if you stop visiting, for example, How can you be present to go back in time for the first time, this is a monumental scratch known as the ‘Dada paradox’, but now Jermaine Tobar, a physics student at the University of Queensland, Australia, says he has “worked the numbers” to accommodate time travel without contradictions and paradox is mathematically possible.

    Tobar says: The classical dynamics says that if you know the state of a system at a particular moment, you can tell us the whole story of the system. However, Einstein’s theory of general relativity predicts the existence of time loops or time travel. Where an event can occur both in the past and in the future itself, theoretically turning the study of dynamics upside down. What the calculations show is that spacetime can possibly be adapted to avoid contradictions.

    To use an occasional example, imagine a time traveler traveling in the past to prevent a disease from spreading. If the mission was successful, the time traveler had no illness to return to in time to lose. They will be… Tobar’s work suggests that the disease will still overcome the contradiction, in some other way, by a different route or by a different method. Whatever the time traveler did, the disease would not stop. Tobar’s work is not easy to delve into for non-mathematicians.

    time travel is possible

    But it does analyze the effect of deterministic processes (without randomness) on an arbitrary number of fields in the space-time continuum, and shows that both curves are limited in time. Roughly Einstein can fit with the laws of free will and classical physics. The math works, and the results are similar to science fiction, says physicist Fabio Costa of the University of Queensland, who supervised the research. New research addresses the problem with another hypothesis, that time travel is possible.

    But travelers will be restricted from creating contradictions in what they did at the time. In this model, time travelers are free to do whatever they want, but contradiction is not possible. While numbers can work, tilting space and time to reach the past is elusive. The time machines scientists have designed so far are so high-concept that they currently exist on a single page of calculations. It exists in the form. We can get there one day, Stephen Hawking certainly thought it was possible, and if we do.

    This new research suggests that we in the world are free to do whatever we wanted to do in the past. Consequently, it would be unfair on its own. As you can try to create a paradox. Costa will always adjust to events, to avoid inconsistencies. The mathematical processes that we discovered show that it is possible to travel with free will in our time without contradictions.

    Paradox is mathematically possible
    A journey through time without paradox is mathematically possible
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    Mars Express finds three new water bodies

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    Mars Express finds three new water bodies
    Mars Express finds three new water bodies below Martian South Pole

    Mars Express finds three new water bodies below Martian South Pole. Using new radar data from ESA’s Mars Express spacecraft, researchers have detected three reservoirs of liquid water trapped under the red planet’s southern polar cap. Artist’s impression of ESA’s Mars Express spacecraft. In 2018, the Mars Express Orbiter found evidence of liquid water under ice at Ultimi Scoopuli, an area near the south pole of Mars and Mars Express finds three new water bodies.

    Mars Express finds three new water bodies

    To establish the range of subclass waters in the region, colleagues from Universiti deli Studio Roma Trey and Drs. Elena Pettinelli analyzed the new data collected on the Mars Express for the Radar Advisor and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) team on Mars Advanced. The researchers said that “Mars was getting hotter and wetter with water on the surface, flowing like Earth”. Although today it is not possible for the water to remain stable on the surface.

    The new result opens the possibility that an entire system of ancient lakes could be underground, perhaps millions or billions of years old. “They would be an ideal place to find evidence of life on Mars and Mars Express finds three new water bodies, even if it is very difficult to get there.” Topographic map of the Mars Orbiter Laser Ultimate Ultima Scoopuli and the location of the MARSIS profile collected in the field. She said: “Like Lake Vostok in Antarctica, subglacial lakes are also known on Earth.”

    Mars Express

    They alter unique ecosystems, providing useful metaphors for astronomers to explore how life can live in extreme environments. Similar to the techniques used in the investigation of subglacial lakes in Antarctica, Canada, and Greenland, Drs. Patinelli and her co-authors explore three new underground water bodies, from Mars Express, the largest deposit measures approximately 20 x 30 km (12.4 x 18.6 miles) and is surrounded by many smaller bodies. Water is considered too salty to remain liquid at low temperatures.

    Our results reinforce the claim of the identification of a liquid water body in ultimi scoopuli and indicate the presence of other nearby wetlands, the scientists said. We suggest that the waters are hypersaline perchlorate brine. Which is known to form in the Martian polar regions and is believed to survive for extended periods at temperatures below the eutectic on the geologic scale. The study was published in the journal Nature Astronomy. Scientists have found a group of three lakes of salty liquid water on Mars.

    Martian South Pole

    About six miles below each planet’s south pole ice sheet. An international team examined radar data from MARSIS. A science instrument on the European Space Agency’s Mars Express spacecraft. The technique uses radio wave bursting to image buried geological formations – similarly “seismic prospecting”, which helps predict earthquakes. They found luminous lakes, which have the ability to sustain microbial life in extreme conditions. In the ultimi scoopuli, a region near the Martian South Pole of the Red Planet.

    Microbial life in lakes can include extrophils, which can withstand intense heat, extremely acidic environments, extreme pressures, and extreme cold. The new discovery is the first ‘alien’ water to be found on the red planet since 2018, when the lake was first discovered beneath the Martian south pole ice sheet. The 2018 discovery was the first evidence of liquid water on Mars that still exists today. An environmental scientist says it is ideal for the growth of microorganisms.

    ESA’s Mars Express

    Scientists say that new lakes in the same area are indicative of the “presence of other surrounding wetlands. Maps generated using radar data with ‘reflective permeability values’ greater than 15, suggesting the presence of liquid water. The central isoline filled with blue indicates the location of the lake found in 2018 +7. Maps generated using radar data with ‘reflective permeability values’ greater than 15, suggesting the presence of liquid water. The central isoline filled with blue indicates where the lake is located in 2018.

    Artist’s impression of ESA’s Mars Express spacecraft. In 2018, the Mars Express Orbiter found evidence of liquid water under ice at Ultimi Scoopuli, a region near the South Pole of Mars. The ESA’s Mars Express locates three new bodies of water under the south pole of Mardan. Using new radar data from ESA’s Mars Express spacecraft, researchers have detected three reservoirs of liquid water trapped under the red planet’s southern polar cap. Establish a subclass water limit in the area.

    Mars Express finds three new water bodies below Martian South Pole

    And collaborators from Universiti Delegate Studio Roma Trey and DRS. Elena Pettinelli analyzes the new data collected on Mars Express for the Radar Advisor and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) team at Mars Advanced. The researchers said that “Mars was heating up and getting wet with water on the surface, flowing like Earth.” Although today it is not possible for the water to remain stable on the surface. The new result opens up the possibility that an entire system of ancient lakes could pass underground.

    Probably millions or billions of years, they would be an ideal place to find evidence of life on Mars, even if it was very difficult to get there. Topographic map of the Mars Orbiter Laser Ultimate Ultima Scoopuli and the location of the MARSIS profile collected in the field. She said: “Like Lake Vostok in Antarctica, subglacial lakes are also known on Earth.” They transform unique ecosystems, providing a useful metaphor for astronomers to explore how life can live in extreme environments.

    three new water bodies

    Similar to techniques used in researching subglacial lakes in Antarctica, Canada, and Greenland, Drs. Patinelli and her co-authors explore three new water bodies. The largest deposit measures approximately 20 x 30 km (12.4 x 18.6 miles) and is surrounded by several small bodies. Water is considered too salty to remain liquid at low temperatures. Our results reinforced the claim of the identification of a liquid water body in ultimi scoopuli and indicated the presence of other nearby wetlands, the scientists said.

    We suggest that the water be hypersaline perchlorate brine. Which is known to have formed in the Martian polar regions and is believed to survive for extended periods at temperatures below eutectic on a geological scale. The study was published in the journal Nature Astronomy. Scientists have found a group of liquid water from three lakes about six miles below the South Pole ice sheet of each planet on Mars. An international team examined radar data from MARSIS.

    A science instrument on the European Space Agency’s Mars Express spacecraft. The technique uses radio wave bursting for buried geological formations, similarly, “earthquake prospecting”, which helps predict earthquakes. They found luminous lakes, which have the ability to sustain microscopic life under extreme conditions. In Ultimi Scoopuli, a region near the South Pole of the Red Planet. Microbial life in lakes can include extrophils.

    growth of microorganisms

    Which can withstand intense heat, extremely acidic environments, extreme pressures, and extreme cold. The new discovery is the first ‘alien’ water to be found on the red planet since 2018, when the lake was first discovered under an ice sheet from the Martian South Pole. The 2018 discovery was the first evidence of liquid water on Mars that still exists today. An environmental scientist says it is ideal for the growth of microorganisms.

    Scientists say that new lakes in the same area are indicative of “the presence of other nearby wetlands.” Maps generated using radar data with more than 15 ‘reflective permeability values’, suggesting the presence of liquid water. Maps generated using radar data with more than 15 ‘reflective permeability values’, suggesting the presence of liquid water.

    Mars Express finds three new water bodies
    Mars Express finds three new water bodies below Martian South Pole
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    First thick-disk exoplanet and the Milky Way

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    First thick-disk exoplanet
    TESS discovers its first thick-disk exoplanet

    TESS discovers its first thick-disk exoplanet. Astronomers using NASA’s transit exoplanet study satellite (TESS) have seen an Earth-sized planet orbiting LHS 1815, our galaxy’s thick disk, the Milky Way, and the artist of exoplanets the size of Land LHS 1815b and Has the impression. Artist’s impression of the Earth-sized exoplanet LHS 1815B and its host star. Current theories suggest that the Milky Way is made up of several components, a thin disk, a thick disk, a crown, and a protrusion.

    first thick-disk exoplanet

    The stars in the solar neighborhood are mostly members of the galactic disk, which contains a small fraction of the halo. To date, more than 4,000 exoplanets have been detected. However, it has been claimed that some of the known exoplanets show thick disk characteristics. The difference in the formation and evolution of the planet between the thick and first thick-disk exoplanet of the Milky Way remains a mystery. The newly discovered exoplanet, named LHS 1815b, is the first thick-disc planet found by Tess.

    We confirm the nature of the LHS 1815 first thick-disk exoplanet primarily based on its kinetic information, the Tsinghua University astronomer Tianjun Gan and colleagues note in their article. Generally speaking, thick disk stars are kinematically warmer than thin disk wires. This image, taken with the 4.1m Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR), shows the M1-type dwarf star LHS 1815. LHS 1815 is a dull, luminous dwarf star type M1, located 97 light-years away. Also known as MASS J06042035-5518468, TIC 260004324, and TOI 704.

    TESS discovers its first thick-disk exoplanet

    This star is about half the size and half the mass of the Sun. LHS 1815b only orbits the original star once every 3.2 days at a distance of 0.04 AU (astronomical units). The alien world is approximately 1.1 times larger than Earth and 4.2 times more massive. Dr. Gan and his co-authors estimate that the planet’s temperature is around 344 ° C (651 ° F). We validate the planet by combining spatial, terrestrial photometry, spectroscopy and imaging, he said. Future Science of the internal structure and atmospheric properties of planets in such systems, for example.

    The upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), may examine differences in the efficiency of the formation and evolution of planetary systems. Different galactic. Discs (thick and thin) and crown) between components. The TESS spacecraft finds its first Earth-shaped planet around a nearby star. The next generation of exoplanet dams has arrived as NASA’s inspection and exoplanet-in-transit satellite. Tess sees stars closer and brighter than Kepler, the spacecraft that turned the motion of first thick-disk exoplanet discoveries into a holocaust.

    satellite (TESS)

    While satellite (TESS), which launched last year, has just begun its search for heaven, it is already beginning to discover new planets. Astronomers say they have discovered an Earth-sized planet called HD-21749C that is only 52 light-years from Earth and orbits its star every 8 days. This is TESS’s first discovery of an Earth-sized planet. Scientists also say they have confirmed HD 21749B. Which is slightly smaller than Neptune in a nearly 35-day orbit around the same star. Both excerpts from TESS exoplanets were teased earlier this year.

    From Earth’s point of view, Kepler discovered planets in the same basic way that he did, for the transit of planets, or passing in front of their stars but TESS will eventually study an area 400 times larger than Kepler’s corner of the sky and will focus on nearby, bright stars that will make it easier to track powerful observatories like the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. One of TESS’s primary goals for its initial two-year mission is to discover 50 planets that are no more than four times larger than Earth and are measured on a larger scale.

    NASA’s transit exoplanet

    This is a strange goal, because TESS cannot really measure the mass of any planet, it can only determine how wide a planet is and how far it orbits. Instead, TESS was designed to work with other observatories, such as two telescopes in Chile that provide radial velocity measurements to fix the mass of HD 21749B. Radial velocity is a way for astronomers to observe the small gravitational pull that a planet has on its star. Unlike transit, radial velocity tells astronomers about the mass of the planets.

    With both measurements, telescopes can confirm each other’s findings and complement every piece of information about the distant world. In this case, radial velocity still cannot fix a mass on a small Earth-sized planet in the system, as it probably weighs only a few times more than our world. The largest NASA’s transit exoplanet has 23 heaviest land masses, and is most clearly shown in the data. In fact, it is rare to find such a large and dense planet.

    Astrophysical Journal Letters

    It is also far from its star, most of the planets in the TET will have orbits of less than 10 days. HD 21749B, orbiting every 35 days, is far enough away to be hot instead of hot. This makes it a fairly unique specimen that can tell astronomers a lot about planets. The discovery of the two planets has been announced Monday in Astrophysical Journal Letters by teams from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Carnegie Institute for Science.

    Co-author Johanna Teske on the research paper did much of the work on the radial velocity side of the research. In an interview, he said the system was already part of a long-term survey and that as data accumulates. They get better odds on a smaller planet if they don’t have accurate measurements. We will continue to monitor it, perhaps for many years to come, she says. He also points out that as TESS moves north with its gaze from the stars in the southern hemisphere.

    TESS’ satellite

    There will be more ground-based radial velocity characteristics, which will help TESS not only achieve its goal of finding planets but its mass. can also be measured. The data will only come faster and, with it, possibly an even richer and planetary journey. Now we are far from the race, says Teske, NASA launched the ‘TESS’ satellite in search of exoplanets. Previous generations saw stars in the night sky and wondered if they, too, were orbiting the planets. Our generation first looks for the answer.

    We now know that there are planets around almost all the stars, and as our technology improves, we continue to explore more. NASA’s newest satellite, TESS (Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite), launched on April 16, 2018, will expand the search for bright stars around tiny rocky planets. We want to know how big those planets are, how they are orbiting, and how they have formed and developed. Do they have an atmosphere, are they clear or cloudy, and what are they made of? In the coming decades.

    host stars

    We will find planets like Earth at the correct distance from their stars as aqueous liquids. It is predictable that one has an atmosphere that contains molecules like free oxygen that indicate biological activity. TESS is an important step towards this long-term goal. Planets are so faint and small compared to their host stars that it is remarkable that we can detect them, let alone study their atmosphere. However, planets can, in our view, travel or “transit” through the face of first thick-disk exoplanet because they block a small fraction of the light from orbit. 

    TESS will monitor 200,000 luminous stars in the solar neighborhood, looking for small dips in its glow that reveal a planet in transition. To understand the exoplanet’s atmosphere, we must examine how they interact with stars. When a planet crosses a star, the thin stain on its atmosphere is illuminated by starlight. Some wavelengths of stars will be absorbed by molecules in the atmosphere, while other wavelengths will shine directly. Therefore, given what wavelength reaches us and what atmosphere is formed, it is not known.

    exoplanet atmospheres

    The starlight spectrum that traverses a planet’s atmosphere can tell us that the atmosphere is made up of © Christine Daniloff / MIT, Julian de Wit. Such comments are correct about the current range of capabilities required by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Hubble needs a successor of $ 8 billion to launch in 2020. With a 6.5 meter wide mirror, Hubble can store every time More light and with specially designed instruments, the JWST is designed to study exoplanet atmospheres.

    To use JWST more effectively, we first need to know which stars host the best transiting first thick-disk exoplanet to study, and therefore we need TESS. Its predecessor spacecraft, Kepler, surveyed 150,000 stars in a patch of sky near the Cygnus constellation, and found over a thousand planets, such as rocky planets like Jupiter, to first thick-disk exoplanet as small as Mercury but Kepler covered only a small patch of sky in which some stars that studied our planets shone. A million stars in one night.

    camera lenses

    In contrast, ground-based telescopes have discovered wide swaths of the sky, looking at many more bright stars to move exoplanets. The most successful has been the UK-led wide-angle planet search project (WASP) of which I am a member. Using a variety of camera lenses, WASP has spent the past decade monitoring a million stars, looking for clear transit every night, and has found around 200 exoplanets, some of which are now for JWST. It is selected as the target but land traffic surveys have an important limitation.

    They look at the Earth’s atmosphere and this severely limits the quality of the data. They can detect luminous dives by 1%. Which is enough to find giant gas planets that are like our own Jupiter and Saturn but small, rocky planets avoid very little light. If our Earth is projected against our sun, it will produce only a 0.01% drop. JWST is currently being read for release. JWST is currently being read for release. TESS will combine the best of these two approaches, observing bright stars across the sky, with the benefit of doing so from space.

    You must find small rocky planets that Kepler proved to be abundant but orbiting with stars bright enough for us to study their atmosphere. TESS will generally inspect each area of the sky for 30 days. This means that it will detect planets that do not take long to orbit their stars, and therefore will produce many transits while TESS watches them. Planets with short orbits are close to their stars, meaning that most planets will be too hot for liquid TESS water.

    TRAPPIST-1

    But cooler, planetary red dwarf stars that orbit darker may be at the right temperature for life, no matter how close they are. The dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 is 1,000 times dimmer than our Sun, and is known to harbor seven nearby planets. While TESS searches for planets orbiting dwarf stars from space, the SpecULOOS study will search for smaller, more diffuse stars from the ground. The planets they see will be the main targets of JWST. An article on the discovery was published in the Astronomical Journal.

    The thick disk of the Milky Way is 10 billion years old, astronomers say. The thick disk of the Milky Way is 10 billion years old, astronomers say. Our Milky Way has two disk-shaped structures, known as ‘thick’ and ‘thin’ disks. Thick disks comprise about 20% of all stars in the galaxy and, based on their structure and vertical suction, the pair is believed to be old. Using data from NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope, astronomers have calculated that the thick disk is about 10 billion years old.

    Milky Way

    From a great distance, our galaxy, the Milky Way, looks like a thin disk of stars that orbits its central region every hundred million years, where hundreds of billions of stars gravitate to ‘hit’ it but this stretch of gravity is very weak in the galaxy’s distant outer discs. There, the hydrogen atoms that make up the gas disk of most of the Milky Way are no longer confined to a thin plane, but instead give the disk an S or distorted appearance.

    From a great distance, our galaxy, the Milky Way, looks like a thin disk of stars that orbits its central region every hundred million years, where hundreds of billions of stars gravitate to ‘hit’ it. Provide. But this stretch of gravity is very weak in the galaxy’s distant outer discs. There, the hydrogen atoms that make up the gas disk of most of the Milky Way are no longer limited to a thin plane, but instead give the disk an S or distorted appearance.

    astronomer

    “Clear a Mystery,” lead author Dr. Said Sanjib Sharma, ARC Center of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics in Three Dimensions (ASTRO-3D) and astronomer at the University of Sydney. Previously, the data on the age distribution of stars on the disk did not agree with the models created to describe it but no one knew where the error was: the data or the model. Now we are very sure that we have succeeded. Dr. Sharma and colleagues.

    A method of identifying the internal structures of stars by measuring their asterisk-like oscillations, is known as asterosismology. Dr. Denise Stello has ASRRO-Three D and Dr. from the University of New South Wales. Earthquakes create sound waves within stars or vibrate, said Dennis Stello. The frequency of production tells us things about the intrinsic properties of stars, including their age. It’s like identifying a violin as a stradivarius that makes it sound.

    An artist’s impression of the Milky Way shows thick and thin discs. This allows researchers dating back to age to essentially look back in time and understand this period in the history of the universe when the Milky Way was formed, a practice known as galactic archeology. Not that they really hear the sound generated by Star-Quake. Instead, they look for how internal movement is reflected in changes in brightness. Dr. Sharma said: Stars are gas-filled spherical devices but their vibrations are small.

    Asterosismology

    So we must watch very carefully. Kepler’s best brightness measurements were ideal for him. The telescope was so sensitive that it could detect the shape of a car’s headlight, as fleas move over it. Data provided over the four years since Kepler’s launch in 2009 presented a problem for astronomers. The information that was provided speculated that the thick disk had more small stars than the model. The question the scientists faced was stark: were the models wrong or the data incomplete!

    A recent spectroscopic analysis revealed that the chemical structure included in the current model for cables in thick discs was incorrect, which affected their age prediction. With this in mind, the researchers found that the asteroseismic data being viewed now falls into “excellent agreement” with the model’s prediction. The results provide strong indirect validation of the analytical power of asterosismology to estimate age, said Dr. Stello. The results have been published in the monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

    First thick-disk exoplanet
    TESS discovers its first thick-disk exoplanet
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    Interstellar comet 2I/Borisov that is 390 million light years

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    Interstellar comet 2I/Borisov
    Interstellar comet 2I/Borisov swings past Sun

    Interstellar comet 2I/Borisov swings past Sun, the first image, taken on November 16, 2019, shows 2I / Borisov in front of 2MASX J10500165-0152029, a spiral background galaxy that is 390 million light years from Earth. The image of the bright central core of the galaxy is blurring while Hubble was tracking the comet. At the time of the observations, interstellar comet 2I/Borisov was 326 million kilometers (202.5 million miles) from Earth. Its dust tail originates in the upper right.

    interstellar comet 2I

    Hubble restarted 2I / Borisov again on December 9, 2019, shortly after his closest approach to the Sun. Where he gained maximum heat after spending most of his life in the icy interstellar space. Image by NASA / ESA / D. Jew, University of California, Los Angeles. Hubble restarted interstellar comet 2I/Borisov again on December 9, 2019, shortly after his closest approach to the Sun. Where he gained maximum heat after spending most of his life in the icy interstellar space.

    Image by NASA / ESA / D. Jew, University of California, Los Angeles. The second image, captured on December 9, 2019, is a re-observation of the comet near the Hubble closest to the Sun. After spending most of his life in the extreme cold of interstate space. He was sometimes subjected to a high degree of heating The comet also reached an impressive top speed of approximately 161,000 km (100,000 mph). The second photo has interstellar comet 2I/Borisov 298 million kilometers (185 million miles) from Earth.

    Interstellar comet 2I/Borisov

    And near the inner edge of the asteroid belt. The comet’s nucleus is still too small to be resolved. Hubble gives us the best measure of the core size of Interstellar comet 2I/Borisov. Which is a really important part of the comet, said Professor David Jewett of the University of California, Los Angeles. Surprisingly, our Hubble images show that its core is 15 times smaller than the one examined earlier. The radius is less than 500 meters. This is important because knowing the size helps us determine the total number and mass of such objects in the solar system and in the Milky Way.

    2I / Borisov is the first known interstellar comet, and we want to know how many others. Astronomers using the NASA / ESA Hubble Space Telescope have captured two new images of interstellar comet 2I/Borisov, the first known interstellar comet that travels through the solar system. 2I / Borisov was discovered on August 30, 2019 by Ukrainian amateur astronomer Gennadi Borisov. Also known as C / 2019 Q4, the comet formed in a planetary system beyond us and was fired into interstellar space as a result of a close collision with a planet in its parent system.

    spiral background galaxy

    2I / Borisov has taken the form of “ghostly” after starting to react to the warming of the sun. It evaporates as it approaches the earth, leaving gas and fine dust in its tail. Hubble observed the comet at a distance of approximately 420 million kilometers (261 million miles) from Earth, spiral background galaxy. Comet’s new short distance annotations provide a clear view of the details and dimensions of the interstellar visitor.

    Astronomers using the NASA / ESA Hubble Space Telescope have captured two new images of 2I / Borisov, the first known interstellar comet that travels through the solar system. Interstellar comet 2I / Borisov was discovered on August 30, 2019 by Ukrainian amateur astronomer Gennadi Borisov. Also known as C / 2019 Q4, the comet formed in a planetary system beyond us and was fired into interstellar space as a result of a close collision with a planet in its parent system.

    2i/borisov swings past sun

    2i/borisov swings past sun and it has taken the form of “ghostly” after starting to react to the warming of the sun. It evaporates as it approaches the earth, leaving gas and fine dust in its tail. In October 2019, Hubble observed the comet at a distance of approximately 420 million kilometers (261 million miles) from Earth. Comet’s new short distance annotations provide a clear view of the details and dimensions of the interstellar visitor.

    The Hubble team published new photographs of interstellar interstellar comet 2I / Borisov. Astronomers using the NASA / ESA Hubble Space Telescope have captured two new images of 2I / Borisov, the first known interstellar comet comet. 2I / Borisov was discovered on August 30, 2019 by Ukrainian amateur astronomer Gennadi Borisov. Also known as C / 2019 Q4, the comet formed in a planetary system beyond ours and was fired into interstellar space as a result of close collisions with a planet in its parent system.

    Interstellar comet 2I/Borisov has taken the form of “ghostly” after the Sun begins to react to heat. It arrives near the earth leaving gas and fine dust in its tail. In October 2019, Hubble observed the comet at a distance of approximately 420 million kilometers (261 million miles) from Earth. The new short-range comet annotations provide a clear view of the details and dimensions of the interstellar visitor. The first image, taken on November 16, 2019.

    spiral-bottomed galaxy

    2I / Borisov versus 2MASX J10500165-0152029, shows a spiral-bottomed galaxy, 390 million light years from Earth. The image of the bright central core of the galaxy is blurring, while Hubble was tracking the comet. At the time of the observations, 2I / Borisov was 326 million kilometers (202.5 million miles) from Earth. Its dust tail originates in the upper right corner. Hubble relaunched 2I / Borisov on December 9, 2019, following the closest approach to the Sun.

    Where he gained maximum heat after spending most of his life in the frozen interstellar space. Image credit: NASA / ESA / D. Jew, University of California, Los Angeles. The second image, captured on December 9, 2019, is a re-observation of the comet near the Hubble, the closest to the Sun. After spending most of his life in the extreme cold of interstate space, he occasionally found high temperatures. The comet also reached an impressive top speed of approximately 161,000 km (100,000 mph).

    interstellar comet 2I/borisov

    In the second photo, interstellar comet 2I/Borisov is 298 million kilometers (185 million miles) from Earth, near the inner edge of the asteroid belt. The comet’s nucleus is still too small to be resolved. “Hubble gives us the best measure of the core size of 2I / Borisov, which is a really important part of the comet, said Professor David Jewett of the University of California, Los Angeles. “Surprisingly, our Hubble images show that its core is 15 times smaller than the one previously investigated.

    Which suggests that it may be. The radius is less than 500 meters. This is important because knowing the size helps us determine the total number and mass of such objects in the solar system and in the Milky Way. 2I / Borisov is the first known interstellar comet and we want to know how many others. NASA has released images never before seen of 2I / Borisov, only the second known object that has gone to another side of our solar system.

    solar system

    The image shows a comet in front of a distant spiral galaxy, which can be made outward but Imag’s approach is the bright blue center of the image, which was taken by the Hubble Space Telescope while tracking the comet through space. The image shows the comet on its way through our solar system as it travels back to interstellar space where it once flew. 2I / Borisov was first seen in August by a Crimean amateur astronomer who would give him his name, and caused excitement worldwide.

    The scientists quickly determined that this was the second interstellar object known to have visited our solar system after the famous ‘Oumuamua’ and the first comet. Since then, scientists have been taking photographs of the comet as it approaches Earth and can be seen better. Hubble’s first comments came in October, and the new images arrived from November and December, giving a better view of visitor size and other details.

    planetary science

    NASA’s innovative decade of space exploration: Show all..When this image was taken, the object was 326 million kilometers from Earth. Scientists can now use it and other observations to learn more about the comet. Scientists finally decide on the true identity of Oumuamua. Hubble gives us the best measure of the nucleus size of interstellar comet 2I/Borisov. Which is a very important part of the comet,” said David Juvitt, a professor of planetary science and astronomy at the University of California.

    Los Angeles, whose team captured Fue, the best and sharpest images of this first interstellar comet. Surprisingly, our Hubble images show that its nucleus is 15 times smaller than the one previously examined. The radius is smaller than half a kilometer. This is important because knowing the size allows us to determine the total number and mass, Helps. objects like this in the solar system, and in the Milky Way. Borisov is the first known interstellar comet 2I.

    We would like to know how many stars there are The price. Scientists now expect to see other interstellar objects and compare the two mysterious objects they can already see. From Hawaii’s highest peak to a high plateau in the Andes, some of the largest telescopes on Earth will point to a hazy fog of light in the coming weeks. The same patch of heaven will attract the attention of Gennadi Borisov, an amateur astronomer from Crimea.

    darkness of space

    And many other fans who will sacrifice adequate sleep through their daily jobs instead of missing out on this golden opportunity. What they are looking for is a rare visitor who approaches the Sun. After that, they have as much information as they can get from the object, before disappearing forever in the darkness of space. This part of the rock and ice began many light years from Earth millions of years ago.

    The violent gravitational thrust pushed the object out of its own neighborhood, from a nearby planet, perhaps from a passing star. Since then, it has been injected into the space between the stars, eventually moving in our direction. On August 30, Borisov saw the object in the previous sky: it glowed dimly with a broad, plump tail. Later called interstellar comet 2I / Borisov in honor of his explorer, he gained worldwide attention because it was only the second object separated by foreign dust particles.

    Sometimes it is known that they enter our solar system from interstellar space. This is my eighth comet, and so incredible, says Borisov, who says he is “very lucky that I received such a unique honor. It is remarkably different from the first interstellar businessman, a small, deep, rocky-looking object called 1I / ‘Oumuamua that circled in front of the sun in 2017. Together, these two are rewriting interstellar objects that researchers know of icy bodies.

    planetary systems in the Milky Way

    Which are estimated to be which add up to 1026, which floated without equal in the Milky Way. Among other things, 1I / u Oumuamua and interstellar comet 2I/Borisov provide the first direct view of the physics and chemistry of the crushed debris clouds surrounding the young stars and serve as bird watching ground for the planets. These samples of other planetary systems are allowing scientists to discover if the solar system is unique or if it shares building blocks with other planetary systems in the Milky Way.

    Because astronomers saw interstellar comet 2I/Borisov on their way to the solar system. They have several months to study it, unlike their fleeting vision of Oumuamua, which was discovered out of their way. As a result, they hope to learn a lot from 2I / Borisov, like what chemical compounds make your heart cold. This is his best look so far on something made around another star and as telescopes continue to probe the sky for weak and fast-moving objects.

    Researchers hope they can see many more interstellar interpolators in the coming years. It was a lot of fun to see a sudden open crack and develop a new field, says Michelle Bannister, a planetary astronomer at Queen’s University Belfast, UK. Dusty ordinus, when an icy eruption crashes around a young star with gas and dust, interstellar objects presumably begin their lives. These are the same regions where planets grow from small nuclei and then ping-pong in several orbits around the star due to collisions and gravity.

    interstellar space

    The planets push through the frozen debris like snowflakes and make their way through a pile of hail. And the results of the models suggest that the planets remove more than 90% of those ‘Hellsons’ from the sphere of influence of their star and take them to interstellar space. There they move like objects scattered in solitude, until they are close enough to pass through another star, to attract them by their rapid movement. Astronomers hoped that the first interstellar object they saw resembled a specific comet.

    Most comets in the solar system are in a region known as the Oort Cloud, a type of cosmic freezing that is approximately 1,000 times farther from the Sun than Pluto. Sometimes, something destroys one of these comets and takes care of it towards the sun; As it gets closer and warms, its core expels the dust and gas that make up a classic comedy but when the first interstellar visitor appeared, it was not like a traditional comet. Unlike them, U Oumuamua was small, only 200 meters wide and rocky.

    In addition, it was shaped like a cigar and finally had the end of the fall. All scientists could do before Oumuamua left the solar system. In contrast, interstellar comet 2I/Borisov looks like a simple comet, and researchers are taking advantage of their time to study it. We are interested in observing the chemistry of this comet to see if it is different from those in the solar system, says Karen Mick, an astronomer at the University of Hawaii, Honolulu.

    Solar System

    2I / Borisov is red and continuously expels dust particles. Its nucleus is relatively small, perhaps only one kilometer in diameter, but it is not unknown to the Solar System comets. After Oumuamua, we had to completely review what we thought interstellar objects might be, says Matthew Knight, a comet specialist at the University of Maryland at College Park but the second coming now looks more or less the same, so far we think maybe we can evict a comet from another star, now I feel much better.

    This shows that the star system where other forms of the world can be like ours..the search is happening fast. Three weeks after the first 2I / Borisov sighting, astronomers trained the 4.2-meter William Herschel telescope in the Canary Islands of Spain and observed cyanide gas molecules coming out of the comet. He was the first to detect gas in a solar system of an alien visitor. On October 11, another research team used a 3.5-meter telescope in New Mexico to detect oxygen from the comet.

    star system

    The oxygen probably came from the water that had broken in the comet’s nucleus, making it the first time researchers enter the water from another star system. Overall, the amount of cyanide and water splashes from the comet is not surprising compared to what astronomers have seen from many other bodies. Astronomers watch closely that other molecules, such as carbon monoxide, can exit 2I / Borisov as it approaches the sun and heats up.

    Which will reveal even more how or how different it is in comets. The solar system, says Maria Womack, an astronomer at the Florida Space Institute at the University of Central Florida in Orlando. Preliminary observations also suggest that 2I / Borisov may contain relatively small amounts of carbon chain molecules such as C2 and C3. About 30% of solar system comets are equally carbon free. They usually approach the Sun relatively, rather than the confines of the Oort cloud.

    astronomy

    As the months go by and astronomers gather more observations of interstellar comet 2I/Borisov, they hope to understand more about the disk that forms the planet where it originated. It’s really exciting to discover what the basic components of other systems are like in relation to us, says Malina Rice, a graduate student in astronomy at Yale University in Connecticut. The researchers also hope to see how interstellar objects can rotate through deep space before they appear in the solar system.

    Projections suggest that objects experience many forces as they orbit the center of the galaxy, including occasional encounters with other stars or elbows of galactic tides. Some scientists have tried to calculate which stars can form around 1I / u Ouamuamua and 2I / Borisov, but their orbits are difficult to traverse, while trying to rebuild, according to the London bar tracker. Other questions include when we can expect the next interstellar visitor.

    And how different it can be from 1I / ua Oumuamua and 2I / Borisov. Scientists did not expect two such rapid successions after decades of fruitless discoveries. I am confused and amazed that the second object has come so quickly, says Robert Jedike, an asteroid expert at the University of Hawaii. They are like buses, says Alan Fitzsimons, an astronomer at Queen’s University Belfast. You wait decades to join, and then the two almost come together.

    Some astronomers are now looking for archival data to see if the objects seen years ago were really interstellar visitors that researchers had not identified at that time. And the future discovery rate is expected to increase, perhaps an interstellar object in a year. When the Great Synoptic Study Telescope comes into operation in Chile in 2022, from where it will examine the entire visible sky every three nights. The European Space Agency is working on a spacecraft concept, known as a kite interceptor.

    Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA releases new images of objects from another solar system. NASA has released images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, representing 2I / Borisov, a mysterious object that entered our solar system earlier this year. These images have never been shown to people before, and reveal a strange type of object rarely seen in our space field. In fact, 2I / Borisov is only the second known object to have visited this solar system from another unknown part of the universe.

    However, it is important to note that objects of this type often pass through our solar system, but it is incredibly rare for scientists to see it, so rare that it has only happened twice. 2I / Borisov is considered a comet, and was initially seen in August. It was discovered by a Crimean amateur astronomer named Gennady Borisov. After its discovery, scientists around the world began to pay attention to the object, and the Hubble Space Telescope began taking photographs sometime in October.

    science and astronomy

    The photos seen in the new NASA press release were taken in November and December when the telescope was able to better see the object. The researchers reported that the photos were taken when the comet was about 185 million miles from Earth. David Jewett, a professor of planetary science and astronomy at the University of California, Los Angeles, was part of the team that recently captured images shown to the public.

    Jewett says his team was able to learn a lot about this comet simply by looking at the Hubble images. For example, they were able to determine that its nucleus is 15 times smaller than previously investigated, suggesting that it may be. He said the comet’s radius is smaller than he expected. Which is also new information for researchers. The comet also reached an incredible top speed of around 100,000 mph with this new information.

    Oumuamua

    They can better estimate the total number and mass of other objects in space, as well as the total size of the object. According to NASA, the comet appears in front of a distant-background spiral galaxy (2MASX J10500165-0152029). The image of the bright central nucleus of the galaxy becomes blurred when Hubble was tracking the comet. Its removed dust tail hits the upper right corner. Which can be seen in the photo. NASA also notes that the comet has been artificially blue to show fine detail in the dust around the central core.

    The halo of the coma. Changes in image color also help to visually distinguish the comet from the background galaxy. The first interstellar object for scientists to pass through our solar system was called “Oumuamua,” which is believed to have been traveling in space for thousands of years. If it did not last long. Scientists are still unclear where any of these objects came from or where they will be after passing through the sites of our space telescopes and satellites.

    Interstellar comet 2I/Borisov
    Interstellar comet 2I/Borisov swings past Sun
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    7 Earth-size planets about 40 light years from Earth

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    7 Earth-size planets
    7 Earth-size planets found orbiting dwarf star.

    7 Earth-size planets found orbiting dwarf star. NASA and European say These new Earth-sized planets orbit a dwarf star called Trappist-1 about 40 light years from Earth. Some of them could keep water on their surfaces. Image credit from NASA. Not just one but 7 Earth-size planets that could disturb life, orbiting a small star, not far away, the first realistic opportunity to discover signs of extraterrestrial life outside the solar system while providing.

    7 Earth-size planets

    The planets orbit about 40 light years or 235 billion miles from Earth, called the dwarf star called Trappist-1. It is quite close in cosmic terms, and by happy accident, the orientation of the seven planetary orbits allows them to study in great detail. In this new system, one or more exoplanets may be at the right temperature to wake up in the water oceans, astronomers said, depending on the distance of the 7 Earth-size planets to the dwarf star. This is the first time that many of these planets have been found around a single star, said Michael Gillon.

    orbiting dwarf star

    An astronomer at the University of Liège, Belgium and leader of an international team observing Trappist-1. News conference call organized by Nature magazine, which published the findings on Wednesday. Scientists could also look for compelling evidence from aliens. I think we have taken an important step to discover if there is life there, Amauri H.W. M. J. Said an astronomer from the University of Cambridge, Triad, England, and another member of the research team.

    Here, if life were able to release and release gases corresponding to those on 7 Earth-size planets, we would know. Cold red dwarfs are the most common type of star, so astronomers are likely to have more planetary systems around Trappist-1 in the coming years. You can imagine how much the world has to become a habitable ecosystem, said Thomas Zurbuchen, associate administrator of the NASA Scientific Mission Directorate, during a NASA press conference.

    Trappist-1

    We are taking a step forward with this, a leap forward, really, towards the answer to that question. Now the ground telescope and the Hubble space telescope in orbit will be able to detect certain molecules in the planet’s atmosphere. The James Webb Space Telescope, scheduled for launch next year, will look at the wavelength of infrared light, which is ideal for studying Trappist-1. A comparison will also appear between the seven different conditions.

    The Trappist-1 planets seek sedentary life in the Milky Way, which was not a member of the research team, said Sara Seager, an astronomer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. For the first time, we don’t have to guess. We just have to wait and then watch very carefully and see what’s in the atmosphere of the Trappist-1 planets. Even if all the planets are lifeless, scientists have learned more about what happens when life flourishes. Astronomers always knew that other stars must have planets.

    Astronomers

    Until a few decades ago, they could not detect them. According to the Open Exoplanet catalog, they have now confirmed more than 3,400. An exoplanet Catalog is the planet around a star that is not the Sun. The authors of Nature’s article include Didier Queloz, one of the astronomers who discovered the first known exoplanet around the Sun star in 1995. While the Trappist-1 planets are about the size of the Earth, about 25 percent in diameter, the 7 Earth-size planets is very different from our sun.

    Trappist-1, named for a robotic telescope in the Atacama desert of Chile. Which astronomers initially used to study the star, is that astronomers consider the mass of the sun and the temperature of the mass as one. With the twelfth part called “ultrafresque dwarf”. 4,150 degrees Fahrenheit, more than 10,000 degrees colder than the sun. There is a shortage of Trappist-1 planets in transit and small PlanetSimals telescopes. During the NASA press conference, Drs. Gillan gave a simple analogy.

    If our Sun were the size of a basketball, Trappist-1 would have been a golf ball. In recent years, scientists seeking life in other parts of the galaxy have focused on finding planets the size of the Earth around stars like the Sun. But it is difficult to eliminate the light of a planet from the glow of the bright star. Small dwarfs are very easy to study. Trappist-1 pointed out from time to time, indicating that a planet may be passing in front of the star, blocking part of the light.

    NASA and European

    From the size of the dives, astronomers calculate the size of the planet. The light of the Trapist-1 went down so often that astronomers concluded, last year, that research reported there were at least three planets around the star. Telescopes around the world observed TRAPPIST-1, as did NASA’s Spitzer space telescope. Spitzer watched TRAPPIST-1 for approximately 20 days, capturing 34 entries. With terrestrial observations, he allowed scientists to count seven, not three planets.

    The planets are too small and too close to be photographed directly. The seven dwarfs are very close to the star, orbiting faster than the planets of our solar system. The innermost one completes a class in just 1.5 days. The furthest person completes a ring road in about 20 days. This makes the 7 Earth-size planets system more like the moons of Jupiter than a large planetary system like our solar system. They make a very compact system, Dr. The planets are approaching each other and very close to the star, Gillon said.

    In addition, the orbital period of the six interiors suggests that the 7 Earth-size planets formed farther from the star and then all were slowly dragged in, Drs. Gillon said. Since the 7 Earth-size planets are so close to a cold star, their surface may be at the right temperature for water to flow, which is considered one of the essential ingredients for life. Fourth, the fifth and sixth planets revolve around the “habitable zone” of the stars, where the 7 Earth-size planets can play the oceans.

    seven planetary atmospheres

    So far, this is only speculation but by measuring how the wavelength of the planet’s light is blocked, scientists will be able to discover what gases float in the seven planetary atmospheres. So far, it has confirmed for the two innermost planets that are not wrapped in hydrogen. This means that they are rocky like Earth, ruling out the possibility that they were mini-Neptune gas planets that prevail around many other stars because the planets are so close to Trappist-1, they are always “gravitationally locked” toward the star.

    Always facing the star with one side of the planet, it would always be the side of the Earth. This would mean that one side would be hot, but an atmosphere would distribute heat, and scientists said that would not be an insurmountable obstacle to life. For a person standing on a planet, it would be a dark environment, perhaps only about one hundredth of the light we see from the sun on Earth, Drs. The triad said. It will still be brighter than the moon at night.

    Trappist-1

    The star will be much bigger. On the fifth planet Trappist-1 F, this star will be three times wider than the sun seen from Earth. As for the color of the star, “We had a debate about that,” Dr. La tríada said. Some scientists expected a dark red color, but with most of the starlight emitted in the infrared wavelength and out of the human eye, perhaps a person “would see something more salmon,” Dr. The triad said. NASA released a poster detailing the sky aspect of the fourth planet.

    If the observation reveals oxygen in the planet’s atmosphere, that may indicate photosynthesis of the plant, although not conclusively but oxygen with methane, ozone and carbon dioxide, especially in defined proportions, “will tell us that there is life with 99 percent confidence,” said Dr. Gillon. Astronomers expect some decades of technological development to be needed before similar observations are made of the Earth’s planets around large bright, sun-like stars.

    planets are dwarfs

    Dr. Triad said that if there is life around Trappist-1, then it is good that we have not expected too much. If there isn’t, then we have learned some depth from where life can arise, he continued. The discovery may also mean that scientists looking for radio signals from extraterrestrial civilizations will also search in the wrong places if most habitable planets are dwarfs, which last longer than larger stars like the Sun. The SETI Institute in Mountain View, California, is using the Allen Telescope Array.

    A group of 42 radio antennas in California, to examine 20,000 red dwarfs. This result is a kind of justification for that project, said Seth Shostak, an institute astronomer. If you are looking for complex biology, intelligent aliens that can take a long time to develop from the scum of the pond, the elders can improve, said Dr. Shostak. It seems like a good bet that most of the cunning beings that populate the universe see a faint red sun that hangs over their sky and at least they won’t have to worry about sunscreen.

    new planetary systems

    Astronomers discovered three compact 7 Earth-size planets systems, the dispersed astronomers of the Planetary Matter Project (DMPP) discovered three new planetary systems. DMPP-1, 2 and 3, which houses six short-lived exopolites. These planets are very close to their parent stars and have a surface temperature. These new discoveries are very promising for future studies, said Professor Carroll Havell, head of astronomy at the Open University and the principal investigator of the DMPP project.

    We must allow the relationship between mass, size and composition of planets outside our solar system to be measured. Also known as HD 38677. It maintains a compact planetary system with an orbital period of 2.9-19 days, comprising four large planets: DMPP-1B, C, D and E. DMPP-1C, D and E are super-terrestrial planets with a mass between 3 and 10 of the Earth. DMPP-1B is a planet similar to Neptune that has about 24 Earth masses. DMPP-1 houses a truly important 7 Earth-size planets with three low mass exoplanets.

    Jupiter

    Whose structure we can measure, said Rutherford Appellate Laboratory, an astronomer at the Open University School of Physics.  DMPP-2, also known as HD 11231, is a type of F5V star from 2 billion years to about 452 light years from Earth. Its only known planet, DMPP-2B, is a massive planet in near orbit, about half of Jupiter in a 5.2-day orbit. The DMPP-3, also known as HD 42936, is a binary stellar system of 6 billion years at a distance of approximately 153 light years.

    The primary star in the binary system, DMPP-3A, is a K0V type star that rotates slowly.  It is a super-Earth planet, DMPP-3Ab, and a star companion, DMPP-3B, in 6.7-day orbit. DMPP-3B has a minimum mass at the boundary between brown dwarfs and low mass stars, and is probably dwarf with stable hydrogen combustion. It is in the orbit of 507 days, the astronomers explained. “DMPP-3 was a big surprise, we were looking for a small signal that indicated a planet in orbit around a low mass.

    The first thing we found was due to a large signal we did not expect, Dr. Said John Barnes, a free university researcher. The astronomers used ESO’s high-precision radial velocity plane (HARPS) finder to observe these planetary systems. They discovered that the temperature of the planet’s surface is between 1,100 and 1,800 C. At these temperatures, the rocky surface of the planet and even the rocky surface can be lost, and part of this material forms thin layers of gas, he said.

    solar system

    This shroud filters the star’s light, providing clues that allow the team to discard small star with these unusual and very hot planets. With more studies, you can measure the chemical composition of the roof, which reveals the type of rock on the surface of the hot planet. Now we can see how planets are formed in general, and if our own planets are specific, said Professor Haswell. For example, we still do not know if it is a coincidence that in the solar system.

    Earth and Venus are the largest rock objects and that the largest fraction of their mass is composed of iron. Astronomers discovered three compact planetary systems and the Planetary Matter Project (DMPP) dispersed astronomers discovered three new planetary systems: DMPP-1, 2 and 3, with six short-lived exopartets. These 7 Earth-size planets are very close to their parent stars and have a surface temperature between 1,100 and 1,800 ° C (2,012-3,272 ° F).

    These new discoveries are very promising for future studies, said Professor Carroll Havell, head of astronomy at the Open Carroll University and the principal investigator of the DMPP project, which allows us to add the mass, size and structure of planets outside of our solar. The system, can be measured, can be measured DMPP-1 is a type of F8V star, 2,000 million years old. Which is about 204 light years located Eur, also known as HD 38677.

    For example, maintains a Compact planetary system with an orbital period of 2.9-19 days, consisting of four large planets: DMPP-1B, C, D and E. DMPP-1C, D and E are 3 more than Earth. There are super-terrestrial planets with a mass between 10. DMPP-1B is a planet similar to Neptune that has approximately 24 Earth masses. DMPP-1 is a truly important planet with three alphabet of low mass exoplanets. Whose structure is Dr. Astronomist and Rutherford Appeal Laboratory is in the Faculty of Physics.

    binary system

    The Open University can measure. Daniel Stob said. DMPP-2, also known as HD 11231, is an F5V type star of 2 billion years about 452 light years from Earth. Its only known planet, the DMPP-2B, is a massive planet, located in approximately half of Jupiter in a 5.2-day orbit. The DMPP-3, also known as HD 42936, is a binary stellar system of 6 billion years at a distance of approximately 153 light years. The primary star in the binary system, DMPP-3A, is a K0V type star that rotates slowly.

    It is a 6.7-day super-orbiting planet, DMPP-3Ab, and a star companion, DMPP-3B. DMPP-3B has a minimum mass at the boundary between brown dwarfs and low mass stars, and is probably dwarf with stable hydrogen combustion. It is in an orbit of 507 days, “the astronomers explained. DMPP-3 was a big surprise, we were looking for a small signal that indicated a low mass in orbit around a planet in orbit, but the first thing is What we got was a large signal that we did not expect. ” Dr. John said Barnes.

    Atmosphere

    A researcher at the Open University, the astronomers used ESO’s high-speed radial plane finder (HARPS) to observe these planetary systems. It was discovered that the surface temperature of the planet was between 1,100 and 1,800 °. At these temperatures, the atmosphere and even the rocky surface of the 7 Earth-size planets can be lost, and part of this material forms a thin layer of gas. “He said. This cover produces wire light, providing clues that allow the team to exclude small star trails with these unusual and very hot stars.

    With more studies, the chemical structure of the roof can be measured. Which shows the type of rock. The surface of the hot planet. Now we can see how planets form in general, and if our own planets are specific, “PROF said Haser Haswell. For example, we still do not know that it is a coincidence that Earth and Venus are the highest in the solar system. Large rocks are objects and the largest fraction of their mass is made of iron. The findings were published in three articles in the journal Nature Astronomy.

    NASA and European

    7 Earth-sized planets called Orbit Dwarf Star, NASA and European. Not just one, but seven Earth-sized planets that could disrupt life, orbiting a small star not far away, the first realistic opportunity to discover signs of extraterrestrial life outside the solar system by providing. The planets rotate around 40 light years or 235 trillion miles from Earth to a dwarf star called Trappist-1. It is quite close in cosmic terms and by happy accident.

    The orientation of the seven planetary orbits allows them to be studied in great detail. In this new system, one or more exoplanets may be at the right temperature to wake up in the oceans of water, astronomers said, depending on the distance from the planets to the dwarf star. “This is the first time that many of these planets have been around the same star,” said Michael Gillon, an astronomer at the University of Lijs, Belgium, and leader of an international team observing Trappist-1 planet. he said.

    Trappist-1 planet

    News conference call hosted by the journal Nature, which published the findings on Wednesday. Scientists could also search for compelling evidence of aliens. I think we have taken an important step to discover if there is life there. Amauri H.W. METER. J. Said an astronomer from Cambridge University in the Triad, England and another member of the research team. Here, if life were to release and release gases like Earth, we would know.

    Cold red dwarfs are the most common type of star, so astronomers are likely to find more planetary systems around Trappist-1 in the coming years. “You can imagine how much of a world it is to become a habitable ecosystem,” said Thomas Zurbuchen and associate administrator at NASA’s Scientific Mission Directorate, during a NASA press conference. Are we alone? We are taking a step forward with this, a leap forward, actually, towards the answer to that question.

    Now the ground-based telescope and the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope will be able to detect certain molecules in the planet’s atmosphere. The James Webb Space Telescope, slated for launch next year, will peek into the wavelength of infrared light, which is ideal for studying TRAPPIST-1. The Trappist-1 planets search for sedentary life in the galaxy, which was not a member of the research team,” said Sarah Seeger, an astronomer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. For the first time, we don’t have to guess.

    We just have to wait and then watch very carefully and see what’s in the atmosphere of the Trappist-1 planets. Even if all the planets are left lifeless, scientists have learned more about what happens when life thrives. Astronomers always knew that other stars must have planets, but until a few decades ago, they couldn’t detect them. According to the Open Exoplanet catalog, they have now confirmed more than 3,400. An exoplanet is the planet around a star other than the Sun.

    astronomers

    The authors of the Nature article include Didier Queloz, one of the astronomers who discovered the first known exoplanet around the Sun’s star in 1995. While the Trappist-1planets are about the size of Earth, plus or minus 25 percent. in diameter, the star is very different from our sun. Trappist-1, named after a robotic telescope in the Atacama desert of Chile, that astronomers initially used to study stars, is that astronomers with a single mass of sun and mass temperature.

    Thirty-ninth “ultrapolitical dwarf.” 4,150 degrees Fahrenheit, more than 10,000 degrees cooler than the sun. There is a shortage of small Trappist telescopes in transit and planetary planets. During the NASA press conference, Drs. Gillan gave a simple analogy: If our Sun were the size of a basketball, Trappist-1 would have been a golf ball. For the past few years, life-seeking scientists in other parts of the galaxy have focused on finding Earth-sized planets around stars like the Sun.

    study of environments

    But it is difficult to remove light from a planet from the glow of a bright star. Small dwarfs are very easy to study. Last year, astronomers announced the discovery of an Earth-sized planet around Proxima Centauri, which is 4.24 light-years away. This discovery was made using a different technique that does not allow the study of environments. Trappist-1 pointed out from time to time, indicating that a planet may be passing in front of the star, blocking some of the light.

    From the size of the dives, astronomers calculate the size of the planet. Trapist-1‘s light went down so often that astronomers concluded last year that research suggested there were at least three planets around the star. Then telescopes around the world observed TRAPPIST-1, just like NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope. Spitzer observed TRAPPIST-1 for approximately 20 days, capturing 34 entries. With Earth observations, it allowed scientists to count seven, not three planets. Planets are too small and too close to be photographed directly.

    The seven dwarfs are very close to the star, orbiting faster than the planets in our solar system. The most internal completes a class in just 1.5 days. The farthest person completes a bypass in about 20 days. This makes the planet system much stronger like Jupiter’s moons than larger planets like our solar system. They make a very compact system. The planets are getting closer to each other and very close to the star, Dr. Gillan said.

    Furthermore, the orbital period of the six interiors suggests that the 7 Earth-size planets formed further from the star and then all were slowly pushed inward, Drs. Gillon said. Since planets are so close to a cold star, their surface may be at the right temperature for water to flow, which is considered one of the essential ingredients for life. Fourth, the fifth and sixth planets revolve around the star’s “habitable zone”. Where the planets can play the oceans. Until now, this is just speculation.

    seven planetary atmospheres

    But by measuring how the wavelength of the planet’s light is blocked, scientists will be able to discover what gases float in the seven planetary atmospheres. So far, they have confirmed for the two innermost planets that they are not enveloped in hydrogen. This means that they are rocky like Earth, ruling out the possibility that they were mini-Neptune gas planets that prevail around many other stars because the planets are so close to Trappist-1.

    They are likely to always be “gravitationally locked” toward the star, always looking at the star with the planet aside, just as much as Earth’s moon is always the same. There is favor. This would mean that one side would be hot. But an atmosphere would distribute heat, and scientists said that would not be an insurmountable obstacle to life. For a person standing on any planet, it would be a dark environment, over which there are probably only two hundredths of the light that we see from the Sun on Earth.

    Dr. Traud said. (It will still be brighter than the moon at night). The star will be much larger. On the fifth planet Trappist-1F, this star will be three times as wide as the sun seen from Earth. Regarding the color of the star, We had a debate about that, Dr. The Triad said. Some scientists expected a dark red color, but with most of the starlight at infrared wavelengths and outside the human eye, perhaps a person “would see something more salmon,” Dr. The Triad said.

    photosynthesis

    NASA released a poster detailing the appearance of the sky on the fourth planet. If observations reveal oxygen in a planet’s atmosphere, it may indicate photosynthesis of plants, although not conclusively but oxygen with methane, ozone and carbon dioxide, especially in fixed proportions, “will tell us there is life with 99 percent confidence,” said Dr. Gillon. Astronomers wait a few decades of Technological Development before similar observations are made of Earth’s planets surrounding large, bright sun-like stars.

    Dr. Triad said that if there is life around Trappist-1, then it’s good that we haven’t waited too long. If there isn’t, then we’ve learned some depth where life can come from, he continued. The discovery may also mean that scientists searching for radio signals from extraterrestrial civilizations will also search in the wrong places if most habitable planets are dwarfs, lasting longer than larger stars like the Sun.

    7 Earth-size planets
    7 Earth-size planets found orbiting dwarf star.
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    What type of telescope is the Hubble space telescope

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    Hubble space telescope
    30th years of the Hubble space telescope

    What type of telescope is the hubble space telescope, NASA / ESA will hold the Hubble Space Telescope 30 years after its launch. During the 1970s, NASA and ESA began planning a space telescope that could overcome the effects of fog from the atmosphere and take clearer images of the universe than ever before. In 1990, the idea finally came true and, despite a failure in the main mirror. Which was solved too quickly, hubble space telescope still exceeded expectations.

    hubble space telescope

    It has deepened in the first years of the universe, which was once possible, played an important role in the discovery that the expansion of the universe was accelerating and examining the atmospheres of the planets around distant stars. A series of projects will continue to involve the public in ceremonies to commemorate this quarter-century of the success and impact of ESA / Hubble engineering and science for hubble space telescope. Project updates are published below, in September 2019.

    30th anniversary

    The Hubble team announced a social media initiative to celebrate three decades of success in discoveries with the NASA / ESA Hubble Space Telescope. The campaign showed 30 hidden gems from the hubble space telescope image collection. The 12 most liked images were compiled to produce a special 30th anniversary calendar for 2020 (.pdf file, high resolution PDF file ready to print). The images that appear in the Hubble Hidden Gems 2020 calendar are described below.

    hubble team celebrates

    The cover of the calendar includes NGC 3256. A distorted galaxy located 131 million light years away in the constellation Candle. The galaxy is about the same size as our Milky Way and belongs to the Hydra-Centaurus supercluster complex. It is the remnant of a collision between two spiral galaxies, estimated to have occurred 500 million years ago.

    January: this image is the result of the ultraviolet cover of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field project; It contains about 10,000 distant galaxies.

    February: this color image shows a small part of the Veil Nebula, one of the most famous supernova remains; NGC 6960, also known as the cirrus nebula and the filamentary nebula. The object covers approximately 110 light years and is approximately 2,100 light years away in the constellation Cygnus.

    March: This Hubble photo shows IRAS 14568-6304, a young star flowing in a mist of golden gas and dust.

    April: This image shows Trumpler 14, one of the biggest meetings of hot, big and bright stars in our Milky Way.

    May: In this snapshot, the constellation of Triangium presents fine details and an exceptionally perfect spiral structure of NGC 634, a spiral galaxy located 250 million light years away.

    June: this composite image shows the show 2-106, a compact star formed in the constellation of Cygnus, which combines two images taken with infrared light and a typical one of the visible light emitted by the excited hydrogen gas. The wavelength is adjusted for.

    July: this image represents Saturn and six of its 82 known moons: Dion, Enceladus, Thetis, Janus, Epimetheus and Mimas.

    August: this image of Hubble NGC 5189, a planetary nebula located in the constellation Musca, about 3,000 light years away; The intricate structure of the starburst looks like a huge, brightly colored ribbon in space.

    September: A colorful and star-filled view of our Milky Way was captured in 2016 when Hubble pointed his cameras at the constellation of Dhanu.

    October: In January 2002, a medium-sized dim star called V838 monochrotosis suddenly became 600,000 times brighter than our Sun; The Hubble snapshot shows remarkable details in the sphere of dust that ignited during the explosion of the Titanic Stellar.

    November: in 2011, Hubble captured a surprise close-up of the Tarantula Nebula, it is a star-forming region enriched with ionized hydrogen gas in a large Magellanic cloud.

    December: In 2002, hubble space telescope revealed a rainbow of colors in IC 4406, a planetary nebula located 2,000 light years away near the western limit of the constellation Lupus.

    Like many other planetary nebulae, IC 4406 exhibits a high degree of symmetry. The left and right half of the nebula are almost mirror images of each other. The memorial calendar shows 12 lesser-known Hubble images. The European Space Agency has published a commemorative calendar, which shows 12 lesser-known images captured by the Hubble Space Telescope, which mark 30 years after its launch. The impressive selection of images shows galactic fusions, dying stars and diamonds as clusters.

    the atmosphere

    All taken by binoculars for more than 30 years. They have been called ‘hidden gems’ by ESA. The hubble space telescope, named for the American astronomer Edwin Hubble, was launched in April 1990 as a joint mission of NASA and ESA. In its three decades of operation. It has helped reduce the age of the the atmosphere universe, understand the weather on other planets and improve the understanding of planets outside the solar system. The colorful vision of the Hubble universe.

    This incredible image of bright light and colorful vortices was captured by the Hubble Space Telescope in 2014. The image is actually an image of approximately 10,000 galaxies. It is the most complete image of the universe in constant evolution, and one of the most colorful ‘ESA’. The Hubble Space Telescope was first launched in 1990 as a joint mission between NASA and ESA. He has seen more than 43,500 celestial objects since his first launch.

    NASA and ESA

    The European Space Agency selected 30 images for the restricted list that the public voted to make the final 12. The telescope was launched into space by NASA and ESA on April 24, 1990. This color image captured by hubble space telescope in 2015 shows a small portion of the Neharika veil. This area of the outer covering of the famous supernova remnant is known as NGC 6960 or, more colloquially, the Broome Witch Nebula. Located about 2,100 light years from Earth. This bright cloud of bright debris spans about 110 light years.

    In this image of IRAS 14568-6304 there is a young star covered in mist of golden gas and dust. The photo was launched in 2014 and the dark sphere is known as the Circinus molecular cloud. It is 2,500 light years away and is approximately 250,000 times the mass of our Sun. ESA said: It is providing us with valuable clues about the process of creating stars. The calendar is part of a series of initiatives by the European Space Agency to celebrate the success of the Hubble Space Telescope before its 30th anniversary in April.

    star cluster

    The agency says it has been instrumental in many scientific discoveries, engineering achievements and cultural influences and, therefore, wanted to select images that were not surprising, but not well known. One of the largest meetings of hot, massive and bright stars in the Milky Way is the star cluster Trumler 14. The Hubble image of 2016 captured the cluster, which has some of the brightest stars in our galaxy, such as ‘diamonds’. The main dark patch, according to ESA, is a ‘boc globule’ near the center of the group.

    It is a distinct and relatively small dark nebula, which contains dust and dense gases. Structure These objects remain the subject of intense research, since their structure and density remain somewhat mysterious. In 2011, Hubble took a snapshot that shows the fine details of the NGC 634 galaxy and the ‘exceptionally perfect’ spiral structure. It is 250 million light years away in the constellation of the triangle. NGC 634 was hosted by a rare white dwarf supernova, which was seen in 2008, shining as its home galaxy.

    NGC 5189

    This combined image of 2011 shows a compact region of star formation in the constellation Cygnus – Hans. Combine two images taken with infrared light and look for a specific wavelength of visible light emitted by an excited hydrogen gas. A newly formed star called S106 IR is immersed in dust in the center of the image. This 2018 image of the planet Saturn ring shows six of its 82 known moons. According to the European Space Agency. You can see the bright spots, which are the witch, Enceladus, Thetis, Janus, Epimetheus and Mimas.

    All frozen and chopped. The agency said Enceladus is considered a candidate for the existence of primitive life because it draws water vapor from a subsurface ocean. Scientists have estimated that 200 million years ago, one of these disintegrates as a small free moon to form the Saturn ring system. This image of the Hubble 2012 hubble space telescope of NGC 5189 revealed new details of the object. ESA stated that the visible structure within NGC 5189 is particularly dramatic.

    The intricate structure of the starburst looks like a huge, brightly colored ribbon in space. During the 1970s, NASA and ESA began planning a space telescope that could see beyond the blurry effects of Earth’s atmosphere and take clearer images of the universe than ever before. In 1990, the idea finally came true and, despite a failure in the main mirror, which was corrected by astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor in 1993.

    James Webb space telescope

    It has reached depth in the first years of the universe, as thought as possible, played an important role in the discovery that the expansion of the universe was accelerating and examining the atmospheres of the planets around distant stars. Hubble’s successor is the James Webb space telescope, a project supported by NASA, ESA and the Canadian Space Agency; It will be launched in 2021. September: scattered stars in Sagittarius

    This colorful and star-filled scene of the Milky Way was captured in 2016 when Hubble pointed its cameras towards the constellation of Dhanu. The visible blue stars probably formed at the same time and from the same molecular cloud that falls apart. Hubble sees light echoes of the mysteriously destroyed star. Arthur C. This image, reminiscent of the HAL 9000 of the Space Odyssey series by Clarke, is actually a stellar explosion of a dim, medium-sized star known as the V838 monochrotrotis.

    V838 monochrotrotis

    Captured in 2002, it shows an echo of light through space due to unusual stellar outbreaks, according to ESA. The image is made up of a combination of exposures taken through blue (B), green (V) and infrared (I) filters. The James Webb space telescope, which will be launched next year, is named after former NASA administrator James Webb. NASA says it will be the main space observatory during the next decade. According to NASA, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope is expected to continue until at least June 2021 and actually a stellar explosion of a dim and also medium-sized star known as the V838 monochrotrotis.

    Which in 2016 decided to extend its useful life for five years. There may be some time overlap between the two telescopes with Webb already in 2021. In 2011, hubble space telescope captured this impressive close-up shot of part of the Tarantula Nebula. ESA stated that it is a star-forming region enriched with ionized hydrogen gas. The nebula is found in the Great Magellanic Cloud, a small galaxy that borders the Milky Way. The Niharika is home to many extreme conditions, including supernova remnants and the heaviest stars ever found.

    scientific instruments

    During its 30-year mission, Hubble has made more than 1.5 million observations of more than 43,500 celestial objects, producing more than 150 terabytes of data. The telescope, which produces 80 GB of data each month, has led to the publication of more than 15,000 scientific articles and several important discoveries, including Pluto’s two new moons, such as the Knicks and the Hydra. It is one of the most productive scientific instruments ever produced.

    According to ESA, like many other planetary nebulae, IC 4406 exhibits a high degree of symmetry. The left and right half of the Are Nebula are almost mirror images of each other. The most popular Hubble images of all time. In addition to the incredible scientific discoveries that Hubble has helped to achieve, the space telescope is perhaps the most famous for its amazing selection of images, including the pillars of creation, roses made of galaxies and the bubble nebula.

    The European Space Agency has a list of the 100 best images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope on its website. Millions of people around the world have shared newspapers whose covers are on the top 100 list and have encouraged generations of people to become scientists. According to ESA, the most popular image of Hubble is called ‘Westerlund 2’ and was taken by the telescope on its 25th anniversary and the Hubble team produces the 30th anniversary calendar for 2020.

    hubble team celebrates

    The Hubble team announced a social media initiative to hubble team celebrates three decades of successful discoveries with the NASA / ESA Hubble Space Telescope. The campaign showed 30 hidden gems from the Hubble image collection. The 12 most liked images were compiled to produce a special 30th anniversary calendar for 2020 (PPD file, high resolution PDF file ready to print)… that appear in the Hubble Hidden Gems 2020 calendar are described below.

    The cover of the calendar includes NGC 3256, a distorted galaxy located 131 million light years away in the constellation Candle. The galaxy is the same size as our Milky Way and belongs to the Hydra-Centaurus supercluster complex. It is the remnant of a collision between two spiral galaxies, estimated to have occurred 500 million years ago. This image is the result of the ultraviolet coating of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field project; It contains about 10,000 distant galaxies.

    Milky Way

    This color image shows a small part of the Veil Nebula, which remains the most famous supernova; NGC 6960, also known as the cirrus nebula and the filamentous nebula and the object covers about 110 light years and is about 2,100 light years away in the Cygnus constellation. This Hubble photo shows IRAS 14568-6304, a young star flowing in a mist of golden gas and dust. This image shows Trumler 14, one of the biggest gatherings of hot, big and bright stars in our Milky Way.

    In this snapshot, the triangular constellation presents fine details and the extraordinary spiral structure of NGC 634, a spiral galaxy located 250 million light years away. This composite image shows 2–106, a compact star formed in the constellation Cygnus. Which combines two images taken with infrared light and a specific combination of visible light emitted by excited hydrogen gas. The wavelength is set to. This image represents Saturn and six of its 82 known moons: Dion, Enseladus, Thetis, Janus, Epimetius and Mimas.

    Hubble NGC 5189, a planetary nebula located in the Muska planetarium, which is about 3,000 light years away. The intricate structure of the starburst looks like a huge ribbon of bright colors in space. A colorful and star-filled view of our Milky Way was captured in 2016 when Hubble revealed his cameras in the constellation Dhanu. In January 2002, a medium-sized dim star called V838 monochrotosis suddenly became 600,000 times faster than our Sun.

    planetary nebula

    The Hubble snapshot shows remarkable details of the dust field that was lit during the explosion of the Titanic Stellar. In 2011, Hubble captured a surprise close-up of the Tarantula Nebula; It is a star-forming region enriched with ionized hydrogen gas in a large Magellanic cloud. December 2002, Hubble revealed a rainbow of colors in IC 4406, a planetary nebula located 2,000 light years away near the western limit of the planet.

    Like many other planetary nebulae, IC 4406 exhibits a high level of symmetry; The left and right half of the nebula are almost mirror images of each other. The Memorial Calendar shows 12 lesser-known Hubble images: the European Space Agency has published a commemorative calendar. Which shows 12 lesser-known images captured by the Hubble Space Telescope, marked 30 years after its launch. The impressive selection of images shows galactic murmurs, dying stars and diamonds as groups.

    European Space Agency

    All taken by binoculars for more than 30 years. ESA has called it a “hidden gem.” The telescope, named for the American astronomer Edwin Hubble, was launched in April 1990 as a joint mission of NASA and ESA. In its three decades of operation, it has helped reduce the life of the universe, understand the climate on other planets and improve the understanding of the planets outside the solar system. This incredible image of bright light and colorful vortices was captured in 2014 by the Hubble Space Telescope.

    This image is actually an image of approximately 10,000 galaxies. It is the most complete picture of the universe in continuous evolution, and one of the most colorful ‘ESA’. The Hubble Space Telescope was first launched in 1990 as a joint mission between NASA and ESA. They have seen more than 43,500 celestial objects since their first launch. The European Space Agency selected 30 images for the banned list that the public voted to make the final 12.

    The telescope was launched into space by NASA.:  This color image, captured by Hubble in 2015, shows a small part of Neharika’s veil. This region of the outer covering of the famous supernova remnant is known as NGC 6960 or, more colloquially. The Broome Witch Nebula. Located at a distance of approximately 2,100 light years from Earth, this bright cloud of bright debris is about 110 light years. Announcement of the violent birth of a child star.

    This image of IRAS 14568-6304 presents a young star covered by a spot of golden gas and dust. The photo was launched in 2014 and the dark field is known as the circinus molecular cloud. It is 2,500 light years away and is approximately 250,000 times the mass of our Sun. ESA stated, it is providing us with valuable clues about the star production process. The calendar is part of a series of initiatives by the European Space Agency to celebrate the success.

    Hubble Space Telescope before its 30th anniversary in April. The agency claims that it plays a key role in many scientific discoveries, engineering achievements and cultural influences and therefore, wanted to select images that were not surprising, but not known. The Shining Diamonds of Trumler 14: Star Cluster Trumler One of the largest meetings of hot, big and bright stars in the Milky Way 14. The 2016 Hubble image captured the cluster.

    brightest stars in galaxy

    Which has some of the brightest stars in galaxy, like ‘diamonds’. According to ESA, there is a ‘Boko Globule’ near the center of the main group of dark patches. It is a distinct and relatively small dark nebula, consisting of dust and dense gases. Structure These objects are subject to intense research, since their structure and density are somewhat mysterious. A perfect spiral with explosive mysteries.

    In 2011, Hubble took a snapshot that shows the finest details of the NGC 634 galaxy and the ‘exceptionally perfect’ spiral structure. It is 250 million light years away in the constellation of the triangle. NGC 634 was hosted by a rare white dwarf supernova, discovered in 2008, which shines as its home galaxy. View of the Hubble from the S106 Star manufacturing area. This combined 2011 image shows a compact star-forming region in the constellation Cygnus.

    Combine the two images taken with infrared light and look for a specific wavelength of visible light emitted by an excited hydrogen gas. A newly formed star called S106 IR is immersed in dust in the center of the image. Saturn’s moon, this image of Saturn in 2018 shows six of its 82 known moons. According to the European Space Agency, you can see the bright spots, the witch, Enceladus, Thetis, Janus, Epimetheus and Mimas, all frozen and sliced.

    Earth’s atmosphere

    The agency said Enceladus is considered a candidate for the existence of primitive life because it draws water vapor from an underground ocean. Scientists have estimated that 200 million years ago, one of these Saturn disintegrates as a small free moon to form the ring system. Hubble snatches NGC 5189. Hubble 2012 space telescope of NGC 5189 revealed new details of the object. ESA stated that the visual structure within NGC 5189 is particularly dramatic.

    The intricate structure of the starburst looks like a huge ribbon of bright colors in space.  During the 1970s, NASA and ESA began planning a hubble space telescope that could see beyond the blurry effects of Earth’s atmosphere and take clearer images of the universe than ever before. In 1990, the idea was finally vindicated and, despite the failure of the main mirror. Which was corrected by astronauts on the Endeavor Space Shuttle in 1993.

    NASA or ESA

    Hubble exceeded expectations, says the son of ESA. It came as deep as in the early years of the universe. As thought as possible, played an important role in the discovery that the expansion of the universe was accelerating and probing the atmospheres of nearby planets around distant stars. Hubble’s successor is the James Webb space telescope, a project supported by NASA or ESA and the Canadian Space Agency; It will be released in 2021. Scattered stars in Sagittarius.

    This colorful and star-filled view of the Milky Way was captured in 2016. When Hubble pointed his cameras at the constellation of Dhanu. Visible blue stars are probably formed at the same time and from the same molecular cloud that diverges. Hubble sees a slight echo of the mysteriously destroyed star. Arthur C. This image, reminiscent of Clarke’s HAL 9000 from the Space Odyssey series, is actually an explosive explosion of a dim, medium-sized star known as the V838 Monocrotrotis.

    Hubble Space Telescope

    Captured in 2002, it shows an echo of light through space due to unusual stellar outbreaks, according to ESA. The image is made up of a combination of exposures taken through blue (B), green (V) and infrared (I) filters. The James Webb space telescope, which will be launched next year, is named after former NASA administrator James Webb. NASA says it will be the main space observatory during the next decade. According to NASA, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope is expected to continue until at least June 2021.

    Which in 2016 decided to extend its useful life to five years. Already in 2021 there may be some time overlap between the two telescopes throughout the web. Hubble captured this impressive close-up of part of the Tarantula Nebula. ESA stated that it is a star-forming region enriched with ionized hydrogen gas. The nebula is found in the Great Magellanic Cloud, a small galaxy that borders the Milky Way. The Niharika is home to many extreme conditions.

    Tarantula Nebula

    Including supernova remnants and the heaviest stars ever found. During its 30-year mission, Hubble has made more than 1.5 million observations of more than 43,500 celestial objects, producing more than 150 terabytes of data. The telescope, which produces 80 GB of data each month, has led to the publication of more than 15,000 scientific articles and several important discoveries, including Pluto’s two new moons, such as Nix, Hydra and Tarantula Nebula

    ESA declares

    It is one of the most productive scientific instruments ever produced. IC Beauty, this incredible image of the dying star IC 4406 was captured in 2002 and features a ‘rainbow of colors’. According to ESA, like many other planetary nebulae. IC 4406 exhibits a high level of symmetry. The left and right half of the nebula are almost mirror images of each other. The most popular Hubble images of all time In addition to the incredible scientific discoveries that Hubble has helped to achieve.

    planetary nebulae

    The Hubble space telescope is perhaps the most famous for its incredible selection of images, including construction columns, roses made of galaxies, planetary nebulae and bubble nebula. The European Space Agency has a list of the 100 best images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. Millions of people around the world have shared newspapers whose covers are on the top 100 list and have encouraged generations of people to become scientists. According to ESA, the most popular image of Hubble is called ‘Westerlund 2’ and was taken by the Hubble Space Telescope.

    Hubble space telescope
    30th years of the Hubble space telescope
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    Fermi gamma-ray space telescope and detects photons in the energy range 30 mega-electron volts

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    Fermi gamma-ray space telescope
    Fermi gamma-ray space telescope is a gamma-ray experiment installed

    Fermi gamma-ray space telescope, the fermi large area telescope (Fermi-Lat) is a gamma-ray experiment installed on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. It takes data from 2008 onwards and detects photons in the energy range between 30 mega-electron volts (MeV) and 300 GHz-electron volts (GeV). An artist’s concept of the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope. Unlike experiments on the ground, Fermi-LAT has a much larger area. Image credit: NASA

    fermi gamma-ray space telescope

    It can see about 20% of the sky at any given time. In study mode, it covers the entire sky in two orbits around the Earth, which takes about 3 hours. The large field of view and near-continuous monitoring of the entire sky make it an ideal tool for studying both continuous sources and sources such as flares and bursts, such as the flow of supermassive black holes in other galaxies, solar and fermi gamma-ray space telescope bursts, stairs.

    Fermi-LAT has detected thousands of gamma ray sources in our galaxy and beyond. Most of the sources are active galactic nuclei, supermassive black holes that collect matter and emit jets that point towards us. The LAT has detected more than 200 pulsars in our galaxy, vastly improving our understanding of the physics of these fascinating objects (the previous fermi gamma-ray space telescope, EGRET, detected only 6). Fermi-Let has also made some unexpected discoveries, such as the gamma ray emission from Nova.

    fermi gamma-ray

    In addition to observing point sources, Fermi-LAT has made an excellent measurement of the diffuse emission of gamma rays, most of which comes from the interaction of galactic cosmic rays with interstellar gas and radiation fields. There are also surprising discoveries in diffuse emission, such as giant bubbles above and below the galactic center and an overabundance of gamma ray emission near the galactic center.

    Fermi-lat at ECAP: At ECAP we work on the analysis of gamma ray data and the interpretation of large-scale emission components, such as Fermi bubbles and the addition of galactic centers. We also work on data-driven methods for point source analysis, such as waveform transformations. NASA’s large field telescope (LAT) from NASA’s Fermi gamma-ray space telescope, Fermi’s final gamma-ray halo around a nearby pulsar, which is about 800 light years away in a constellation of Gemini.

    fermi gamma-ray telescope

    A pulsar, a rapidly rotating neutron star, naturally surrounds itself with a cloud of electrons and positrons. The reason for this is that the magnetic field of a neutron star extracts particles from the surface and accelerates them to the speed of light. Electrons and positrons are among the sharp particles known as cosmic rays, which originate beyond the solar system. Because cosmic ray particles carry an electric charge, their paths dislocate when they find a magnetic field on their trip to Earth.

    This means that astronomers cannot directly monitor their sources. During the last decade, Farzi aboard the International Space Station, measurements from NASA’s alpha magnetic spectrometer and other space experiments have seen more positrons at higher energies than scientists. Our analysis suggests that Geminga may be responsible for a decade-long puzzle about why positrons are unusually abundant near Earth, said Dr. Matia di Mauro, an astrophysicist at the Catholic University of America and the Flight Center. NASA Goddard space.

    Fermi-Lat

    To study the halo around Gemminga, Drs. De Mauro and his colleagues had to eliminate all other sources of gamma rays, including the scattering of light produced by cosmic rays, which contained clouds of gas between stars. We explored the data using 10 different models of interstellar emissions, said postdoctoral researcher Dr. Sylvia Manconi of RWTH Aachen University. When these sources were removed, there was a giant.

    A huge rectangular glow that spanned about 20 degrees, about 40 times that of a full moon, at an energy of 10 billion electron volts (GEV), and even larger at lower energies. The researchers determined that Gemminga can only be responsible for 20% of the high energy positrons observed by other space experiments. Extending this to the cumulative emission of positrons of all pulsars in our galaxy, the Milky Way, it is clear that pulsars are the best explanation for the observed excess of positrons, he said.

    Low energy particles travel well beyond the pulsar before moving to the stars, transferring some of their energy and extending the light to gamma rays. That is why the emission of fermi gamma-ray space telescope or gamma rays covers a large area at low energy, said Fiorenza Donato, an astronomer at the National Institute of Nuclear Physics of Italy and the University of Turin. In addition, the Gemminga halo is partially elongated due to the movement of the pulsar through space.

    Dr “Our work demonstrates the importance of studying individual sources to see how they contribute to cosmic rays,” said De Mauro. This is an aspect of the new and exciting field known as multimersal astronomy, where we study the universe using many signals, such as cosmic rays, in addition to light. NASA’s fermi gamma-ray space telescope has discovered a foggy but massive glow of high-energy light around a nearby pulsar. If visible from the human eye, this “halo” of gamma rays will appear about 40 times larger in the sky than the full moon.

    This structure can provide a solution to an ancient mystery about the amount of antimatter in our neighborhood. “Our analysis suggests that this same pulsar would explain a riddle of a decade of why a type of cosmic particle is unusually abundant near Earth,” said an astrophysicist at the Catholic University of America in Washington. Said Mattia Di Mauro, physicist and astronomer on NASA’s Goddard Space Flight.

    Center in Greenbelt, Maryland

    These are positrons, antimatter versions of electrons, that come from somewhere beyond the solar system. An article detailing the findings was published in Physical Review D on December 17 and is available online. A neutron star is the crushed core left behind, when a star more massive than the Sun runs out of fuel, collapses under its own weight and explodes like a supernova. We see some neutron stars like pulsars, objects that emit rapid rays of light that, like the lighthouse, float regularly in our line of sight.

    Jeminga (pronounced geo-ming-ga) discovered in 1972 by NASA’s Small Astronomy Satellite 2 is one of the brightest gamma-ray pulsars. This constellation is about 800 light years away in Gemini. Gemminga’s name is a play on words with the phrase “Gemini gamma ray source” and the expression “is not there”, referring to the inability of astronomers to find objects in other energies in the dialect of Milan, Italy. Gemminga was finally identified in March 1991.

    Solar system

    When the flashing X-rays extracted by the Rosat mission in Germany showed that the pulsar turned 4.2 seconds. A pulsar is naturally surrounded with a cloud of electrons and positrons. This is because the intense magnetic field of a neutron star extracts particles from the surface of the pulsar and accelerates them almost at the speed of light. Electrons and positrons are among the sharp particles known as cosmic rays. Which originate beyond the solar system.

    Because cosmic ray particles carry an electric charge, their paths dislocate when they find a magnetic field on their trip to Earth. This means that astronomers cannot directly monitor their sources. Over the past decade, Farzi aboard the International Space Station, cosmic ray measurements performed by NASA’s Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) and other space experiments near Earth have seen more positrons at higher energies than the scientists.

    accelerated electrons

    Nearby Pulsars like Gemminga were the main suspects. Then, in 2017, scientists from the High Altitude Chernakov Gamma Ray Observatory (HAWC) near Puebla, Mexico, confirmed the surface arrest of a small halo of gamma rays around Jamming. He observed this structure with an energy of 5 to 40 billion volts of electrons, light with many times more energy than our eyes. Scientists believe that this emission occurs when accelerated electrons and positrons collide with near starlight.

    The collision increases the light at very high energy. Based on the shape of the halo, the HAWC team concluded that Geminga positrons rarely reach Earth with these energies. If true, this would mean that the observed positron should have a more exotic explanation. But interest in a Pulsar original continued, and Gaminga was in front and center. Di Mauro led a decade-long analysis of Gemminga gamma ray data acquired by Fermi’s Large Area Telescope (LAT).

    clouds of gas

    Which monitors low energy light compared to HAWC. “To study the halo, we had to eliminate all other sources of gamma rays, including the light that has been diffused since the creation of cosmic rays with clouds of gas cost,” co-author Silvia Manconi, a postdoctoral researcher at the RWTH University of Aachen in Germany. He said: We explore the data using 10 different models of interstellar emissions when these sources were removed.

    There was a huge oblique glow that spread about 20 degrees to the sky with an energy of 10 billion electron volts (GeV). It has a shape similar to the famous Big Dipper star pattern, and the halo is even larger at lower energies. Low energy particles travel well beyond the pulsar before moving to the stars, transferring some of their energy and extending the light to gamma rays. That is why gamma irradiation covers a large area with little energy, said Fiorenza Donato at the National Institute of Nuclear Physics of Italy and the University of Turin.

    pulsars in galaxy

    In addition, the interference halo is partly due to the movement of the pulsar through space. The team determined that Fermi LAT data was consistent with previous observations of HAWC. Geminga can only represent 20% of the high energy positrons observed by the AMS-02 experiment. Extending this to the cumulative emissions of all pulsars in galaxy, scientists say that the Pulsar positron is the best explanation for the excess.

    My work demonstrates the importance of studying individual sources to explain how they contribute to cosmic rays, said Di Mauro. This is an aspect of the new and exciting field known as multimersal astronomy, where we study the universe using many signals, such as cosmic rays, in addition to light.

    Fermi gamma-ray space telescope
    Fermi gamma-ray space telescope is a gamma-ray experiment installed
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    Super-puff exoplanets are actually giant ring systems of exoplanets

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    Super-puff exoplanets
    Super-puff exoplanets are actually giant ring systems, super swellings, a complicated and growing class of exoplanets

    Super-puff exoplanets are actually giant ring systems, super swellings, a complicated and growing class of exoplanets. Super-Puff, an intriguing and growing class of exoplanets, are objects with exceptionally large radii for their mass and, therefore, are of low density. According to new research, some of these super-puff exoplanets may sound; Three super-inflatable Kepler-87C, Kepler-137c and HIP 41378f are particularly good candidates for the ring.

    super-puff exoplanets

    The artist’s conception of a ringed planet is in front of super-puff exoplanets. Image by Carnegie Institution for Science. Astronomer of the Carnegie Institution for Science. We began to wonder what would happen if these planets were not as windy as cotton candy, Dr. said Anthony Piro. What if the super puffs look so big because they are actually surrounded by rings! In our own solar system, all gas and ice are giant planetary rings.

    The most famous example being the majestic rings of Saturn. But it has been difficult for astronomers to look for planets that orbit distant planets. The radius of the exoplanet is measured during transit. When the exoplanet passes through the front of its host star, it plunges into the star’s light. The larger the size of the dive, the greater the exoplanet. We begin to wonder, if you see us from a distant world, can you recognize Saturn as a circular planet.

    And or will it be a multi-colored planet for an alien astronomer! Said Shreyas Vispragada, a graduate student in planetary science at Caltech. To test this hypothesis, the researchers simulated how a ring exoplanet would observe an astronomer with high-precision instruments watching it travel in front of its host star. They also investigated the types of ring material that may be responsible for the super-swollen observations.

    transit gas giant

    His work showed that the Rings can explain some, but not all, of the overpopulations that NASA’s Kepler mission has discovered so far. Dr. Piro declared: These planets orbit their host stars, which means that the rings have to be rocky, instead of ice cream but the ready rocky ring can only be so large, unless the rock is very porous, so not all super-puff exoplanets will conform to these restrictions, artist’s impression of a transit gas giant.

    This is almost as much as the planet can receive a host star without being separated by gravitational forces but it will come closer…Astronomers have estimated that the exoplanet is spiraling toward the super-puff exoplanets and will cross that fiery point, called the Roche limit, in just 38 million years. It is a complete waste. The discovery makes this solar system an incredible laboratory between interstellar study of interstellar tides and a giant exoplanet.

    giant exoplanet

    An article describing the exoplanet, which is of the ‘iter hot jupiter’ type, has been published in the preprint resource arXiv [sent to MNRAS]. Hot Jupiters are attractive giant exoplanet. As their name suggests, they are gas giants like Jupiter; However, unlike Jupiter, they orbit very close to their host stars, with an orbital period of less than 10 days. This is what makes them “hot” (and here you were thinking I was a swimmer).

    According to the current model of planet formation, technically hot Jupiter should not exist. The vastness of the gas cannot be close to its star, since gravity, radiation, and strong stellar winds must prevent the gas from colliding with each other. However, they do exist; More than 4,000 confirmed exoplanets, discovered to date, can contain up to 337 heated jupiters. They are believed to move in the arrangement of their planets, then migrate to the star.

    esoteric gas giants

    We don’t know much about their mysterious births, but hot jupiters that are particularly close to their stars can tell us a lot about tidal interactions between the planet and the stars. Therefore, they are among the most studied exoplanets in the galaxy. After this latest dizzying discovery, only six of these esoteric gas giants were detected with an orbital period of less than a day: WASP-18b (22.6 hours), WASP-19b (18 hours), WASP-43b (19.5 hours), WASP-103b (22.2 hours), HATS-18b (20.1 hours) and KELT-16b (23.3 hours).

    The NGTS-10B, discovered using a next-generation ground-based traffic survey in Paranál, Chile, marks the seventh of these very hot jupiters, and is the shortest orbital period of all. Between September 21, 2015 and May 14, 2014, a single telescope observed the star, now known as NGTS-10, for more than 23 nights. The survey had not yet been officially commissioned, but during this commissioning phase it captured the 10,920-second exposure of the 220,918 Star.

    astronomers

    It was a relatively infallible main sequence star, like the orange K-type star about 10 billion years old, less than 70 percent the size and mass of the Sun but a closer look at those images showed that the star decreased slightly every 18.4 hours. So an international team of astronomers, led by James McCormack of the University of Warwick, worked using those data and using additional observations to blame Exoplanet for the attenuation.

    They determined that NGTS-10B is only 1.2 times the size of Jupiter and more than 2.1 times its mass and it is orbiting the star at 1.46 times the radius of Rosh, which means it is on the brink of tidal catastrophe (in cosmic time). At such close proximity to the star, while still not enough to pull the NGTS-10B apart, the exoplanet will flatten out at the poles as the star’s gravity deforms it, rather than forming a nice round thick sphere.

    The team was careful to exclude a binary partner from the host star as a reason for mitigation. Therefore, we are as sure as we can say that the exoplanet exists. The problem is that the light from neighboring stars has made it difficult to calculate an accurate distance for NGTS-10. The 1,060 light-year distance was calculated based on data from Gaia, the most accurate three-dimensional map of the Milky Way galaxy to date, but still a margin of error.

    Astronomical journal

    If the distance is wrong, it may mean that the data of some size and scale is slightly wrong. Meanwhile, the orbital decay of the exoplanet can be detected by continuous observations of the system. The team predicts that the class will drop in less than 7 seconds in the next 10 years. If astronomers can get accurate enough measurements of the system, they can see what happens. An article about the findings was published in the Astronomical Journal.

    Unexpected excess of giant planets in the star cluster. An international team of astronomers discovered that there are many more Jupiter-like hot planets in the group of stars called Messier 67. This surprising result was achieved using various telescopes and equipment. Including the Harapogograph in Lao, ESO, the Silla Observatory in Chile. The dense atmosphere in a group will cause more frequent interactions between planets and nearby stars, which may explain the excess of hot Jupiter.

    A team from Chile, Brazil, and Europe led by Roberto Sagalia at the Maxo-Planck-Institute für Extraterstis Physique in Garching, Germany, and Luca Pasquini at ESO spent several years collecting high-precision 88-star measurements at Messier 67 Son. The open star cluster is approximately the same age as the Sun and the solar system is believed to have originated in a dense and uniform atmosphere. The team used HARPS, among other devices, to search for giant planetary signatures in short-term orbits.

    hot Jupiter

    And manipulating the “history” of a star due to the presence of a giant object in a close orbit. Wait A type of planet known as hot Jupiter: This hot Jupiter signature is now found for a total of three stars in the cluster, with earlier evidence from several other planets. A hot Jupiter is a massive exoplanet with a mass greater than about one third of Jupiter’s mass. They are “warm” because they orbit close to their original stars.

    As indicated by an orbital period (their “year”) that is less than ten days long. This is very different from the Jupiter that we are familiar with in our solar system, where approximately 12 live on Earth a year and are much colder than Earth. We want to use an open star cluster as a laboratory to explore theories of exoplanets and planet formation, explains Roberto Genelia. Here we have not only many stars that possibly host planets.

    But also a dense atmosphere in which they must have created. The study found that warmer Jupiters are more common than stars in Messier 67. Which is for stars outside of groups. “This is really an amazing result,” Ana Brusselaci analyzed. The new results mean that about 5% of the 67 Messier stars studied have hot Jupiters, far more than in comparative studies on stars, where the cluster is greater than 1%.” Astronomers think that these alien giants are highly unlikely to form where we found them.

    solar system

    Because positions so close to the original star would not initially be suitable for creating planets like Jupiter. Instead, it is believed that more formed, just like Jupiter, and then approached the original star. Those massive, cold and distant planets are now a good merchant. So the question is: what is the reason they are migrating to the star! There are many possible answers to that question.

    But the author concludes that it is likely the result of close encounters with neighboring stars and or even planets in the neighboring solar system. The solar system has The immediate environment can be a significant influence on how it develops. In a cluster like Messier 67, where the stars are much closer to the average, such comparisons would be much more common.

    Which would explain the greater number of warmer Jupiter found there. Luca Pasquini, co-author and co-director of ESO, reviews the remarkable recent history of planetary studies on factions. Until a few years ago, hot Jupiters were not detected in open groups. In three years since paradigms, it is eliminated. The total absence of such planets – for an extra!

    Super-puff exoplanets
    Super-puff exoplanets are actually giant ring systems, super swellings, a complicated and growing class of exoplanets
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    The supermassive black hole of the milky way

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    The supermassive black hole of the milky way
    The supermassive black hole of the milky way

    The supermassive black hole of the milky way. Astronomers see four new G objects near the supermassive black hole of the Milky Way: In the center of our galaxy, the Milky Way, is Sagittarius A *, a supermassive black hole four million times the mass of the Sun. Recently, two unusual objects scorched by dust have been found that orbit near a black hole: the so-called objects G, G1 and G2. Now, an international team of Astronomers has observed four additional G objects.

    supermassive black hole of the milky way

    All located 0.13 light years from Sagittarius and forming a class of objects that are possibly unique in this environment. An artist’s representation shows G objects, with red centers. Orbiting the supermassive black hole Dhanu A *. The supermassive black hole of the milky way (black hole) is represented as a black sphere inside a white ring (above the center of the representation). G objects resemble clouds of gas and dust, but have the properties of stellar objects.

    These objects look like gas and behave like stars, said Professor Andrea Ghez, an astronomer at the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of California, Los Angeles. Their orbits range between 100 and 1,000 years, said Drs postdoctoral researcher at the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of California, Los Angeles, Anna Sierlo was added. Professor Ghez and his colleagues identified the first object G, the G1, in 2005.

    the central black hole

    In 2012, German astronomers discovered a G2 object that reached near a supermassive black hole in 2014. According to scientists, G2 is probably two stars that orbited a black hole in tandem and merged into a much larger star wrapped in unusually thick gas and dust. At the time of the closest approach, the G2 had really strange signatures, said Professor Ghez. We had also seen it before, but it didn’t seem very strange, until it approached the black hole and lengthened, and much of its gas exploded.

    It went from being a very beautiful object. When it was so far from the black hole that it was actually stretched and distorted at its closest approach and lost its outer layer and now again getting compact. One of the things that has made everyone excited about G objects is that they are dragged by the forces of the tide as they sweep through the central black hole, essentially falling into the black hole. It should, said Professor Mark Morris.

    the supermassive black hole of the milky way

    Also from the Department of Physics and Astronomy of the University of California, Los Angeles. When this happens, it can produce an impressive fireworks show because the material consumed by the black hole will heat up and emit abundant radiation before disappearing beyond the event horizon. The image shows the orbits of the G objects in the center of the Milky Way, with the supermassive black hole Dhanu A * indicated with a white cross. The stars, gas and dust are in the background.

    The team now reports the existence of four more G objects: G3, G4, G5 and G6. While the classes of G1 and G2 are similar, the classes of these new objects are very different. Astronomers believe that the six objects were binary stars that merged due to the strong gravitational force of the supermassive black hole. Black holes can lead to merge binary stars, said Professor Ghez. It is possible that many of the stars we are seeing and that we do not understand are the final fusion products that are great at the moment.

    supermassive black hole

    The merger of the two stars takes more than 1 million years to complete, he said. The way binary stars interact with each other and with black holes is very different from how individual stars interact with other stars and black holes. The findings were published in the Journal Nature. The Vanderbilt researcher shares more than 3,000 brain scanners to support the study of reading and language development. Neuroscientist James R. of Vanderbilt Booth University.

    Vanderbilt Booth University will publish two large-scale neuroimaging data sets on reading and language development to support other researchers around the world who work to understand how educational skills develop in childhood. We can follow our curiosity and answer some interesting questions with these data sets, said Booth, Patricia and Rhodes Hart, Professor of Educational Neuroscience at the Vanderbilt Peabody School of Human Development and Education.

    We hope others can reproduce some of our main findings and expand them in new directions. CT scan of the human brain, from the base of the skull to the top. The digital repository is available on OpenNeuro, with the data set consisting of more than 3,000 MRI scans that detect the structure and function of the brain in school-age children. Booth and his colleagues have used the data set in “cross-cutting lexical lexical processing” to provide children with a deeper understanding of the specificity and mastery, to understand the process of written and spoken language.

    the milky way

    Use poetry, spelling and semantic functions to do. General processes in the brain, and how it relates to educational skills. By making these data available to the public. Other researchers can expand the set of basic research results from this data set, which includes many functions in both visual and auditory methods. For example, researchers can use a network approach to understand if brain dynamics differ according to the demands of the task.

    The longitudinal correlates of the brain of multiplexed lexical processing in children, extend the research carried out in previous data sets, by exploring poetry in audiovisual contexts (see Figure 1). The project focuses on reading skills and one of the main skills related to dyslexia. Which is the ability to map between auditory and visual modalities. This data set has a longitudinal component that allows researchers to explore how a person’s reading develops during childhood.

    When the children in MRI decided to rhyme. The researchers collected structural, functional and proliferation neuroimaging data. Although several research papers on the data have been published, none of these studies have investigated changes in brain activation over time. The publication of these data offers an exciting opportunity for future research. Future studies can also examine whether these trajectories can be predicted beforehand, which is useful for early detection and intervention.

    black hole of the milky way

    Compare brain function with academic skills. In addition to more than 3,000 brain scans, both datasets include scores from several standardized tests, allowing researchers to compare brain function with other educationally relevant skills. Test scores, behavioral performance in imaging tasks, demographics and brain data can be integrated in general to explore how children develop. For example, it is not known how the neural basis of reading skills varies based on cognitive abilities indexed by intelligence measures.

    In addition, it is not known how socioeconomic status is related to functional changes in the brain over time in the reading network. Recently, detailed descriptions of these datasets have been published in Data in Brief (multidomain) and scientific data (multisensory) to facilitate future data reuse. Both the data sets and their descriptors are open access, which means that anyone with Internet access can read and use these large data sets.

    scientific community

    Booth Lab has also launched additional resources on the exchange of neuroimaging data. “We look forward to continuing our participation in giving back to the scientific community and making research practices more open and transparent,” said Marissa Lytle. Research assistant and coordinator of the data exchange project at Booth Sharing Brain Laboratory. “By providing knowledge on how to share data other than data sets, we hope that other researchers feel empowered to share their own data with the research community and the public.”

    Researchers develop smart gloves to help astronauts detect the Moon and Mars Trying to unlock the phone on a cold day with gloves does nothing. Some enter the password with their nose, while others give up and remove a glove to slide. Now imagine being on the surface of the Moon or Mars, where surviving in the vacuum of space is not an option. After being exposed to only 10 seconds, the water in the body begins to evaporate, causing the skin and tissue to swell.

    Red Planet

    Thanks to the new astronauts, who go to the Moon on Artemis missions and will eventually be beyond the Red Planet, there are innovative things on the horizon. What are these smart gloves and how will it make it easier for astronauts to live and work in outer space, from hand-sewn suits to elegant suits. The first space suits, those that protected Apollo astronauts while traveling across the moon, do not appear to be today. During that time, engineers faced many challenges.

    To begin, they had to build a suit that would protect astronauts from the cold, airless surface of the moon. However, it had to be comfortable and efficient. In addition, it must be able to withstand extreme temperatures, up to 240 ° F from -280 ° F under the sun, while protecting the inner body. They also needed the ability to exert pressure. In addition to the above criteria, these suits were hand sewn. A company, Playtex, known today for making bras and other types of underwear, stood out above the rest.

    Moon and Mars

    Creating a suit that was flexible but airtight. It can withstand massive temperature changes and will not be comfortable enough to spend time with astronauts. Of course, everything designed to work in suits had to be massively equipped, the buttons were easy to handle. Since the gloves were heavy. These suits protected the astronauts, but they were not enough to comfortably weave or write letters. Astronauts traveling to the Moon and Mars.

    The Moon and Mars will have a lot of new technology at their disposal, things that will not be compatible with traditional heavy space suit gloves. From here comes intelligent innovation. Instead of using manual manipulation, picking up and working with one hand and the new gloves capture hand movements and transfer them wirelessly to any connected device. Including drones and robots. Astronauts can eventually use this technology to control autonomous smart drones.

    gravity of the Moon

    This step is the first to create the next-generation space suits necessary for the long-term residence of our closest interstellar neighbors. Astronauts should be able to interact and explore their environments, especially when we start sending them to the Moon and Mars. With the use of old-school gloves and heavy suits, these tasks are simply not possible. While the gravity of the Moon is only part of the Earth, it is still difficult to move if a set of heavy outerwear is worn.

    Man has already set foot on the moon, but when will we return, how will we travel beyond the known limits to discover humanity’s next destination, whether it’s Mars or a completely new galaxy, to become a true interstellar species, we will need to constantly update the tools and equipment at our disposal. While some scientists focus on rockets and fuels, others understand the importance of a protective and versatile space suit. These smart gloves, which increase movement and usability, will help bring humanity to the moon and beyond.

    Toyota is joining forces with the commercial technology leader eVTOL – electric air taxis are coming. Toyota is entering aviation: it is investing $ 394 million in an aerospace labor aviation company. Joby is trying to produce a commercial fully electric vertical take-off and landing plane. Which will revolutionize air transport services but why Toyota is interested in it and what can we expect from Joby! Simply put, Toyota wants to be part of the emerging urban electric air transport services market and is a good business partner for Jobs.

    advanced technologies

    Well, the answer to the first question is really very simple. Toyota is about mobility and all its variants. Joby is trying to offer quiet and economical air transport solutions, which we have today with nothing. This is a great opportunity for Toyota to be part of a completely new business in the transport sector and you have to remember that Toyota has never been about cars. It produces trucks, heavy equipment, robots and other advanced technologies.

    Meanwhile, the work will benefit in many different ways. First, of course, Toyota leads the last round of $ 590 million with $ 394 million. In addition, Toyota will contribute its experience in the construction and knowledge of the transport services market. This would become the right base for the company, since Toyota’s experience in terms of manufacturing technology and business construction is not surprising.

    The founder and CEO of Joby Aviation, JoBen Bewert, said. Toyota is known worldwide for the quality and reliability of its products that are carefully operated for expansion and manufacturing processes. I am interested in taking advantage of Toyota’s engineering and manufacturing. Excited for our dream of helping one billion people save an hour + travel time every day AND on the move. You may have never heard of Joby but he is a true leader in the development of EVTOL aircraft.

    EVTOL technology

    EVTOL technology, vertical electric takeoff and aircraft landing will become the new transport solution for congested cities. Why fight traffic when you can fly over it, the rider’s plane is like a large drone, a mix between a helicopter and a plane. The first S2 prototype was a two-seater tiltable propeller but now the company is working on a much more significant S4: four seats with four struts on the wing and two tilt struts on the tail. It will stop completely vertically.

    But then it will slightly tilt its props and enter airplane mode. This will allow you to reach a respectable speed of approximately 322 km / h. With capacity for four people and including the pilot, but in the future it should be fully autonomous. We still don’t know when the first prototype will be ready to test, it will be completely electric. This would be beneficial in many ways. First, it will work in a much quieter way.

    When it takes off it will be 100 times less noisy than a helicopter. Second, it will be free of emissions. Joby estimates that the S4 will travel 241 km on a single charge. Given that it will work in a city, this should be enough. Someday it will be your taxi. Joby wants it to be a cheaper means of transportation for everyone and we can certainly imagine a future when the skies of the cities are filled with these air taxis. That’s why Toyota wants to be part of this.

    The supermassive black hole of the milky way
    The supermassive black hole of the milky way
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    Enigmatic fast cosmic radio burst exploded in the 157-day cycle

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    Repeating cosmic radio burst
    Repeating cosmic radio burst follows bizarre 157-day cycle

    Repeating cosmic radio burst follows bizarre 157-day cycle. Enigmatic fast cosmic radio burst exploded in the 157-day cycle. A research team led by astronomers at the University of Manchester has carried out a long-term monitoring operation of a fast, repetitive radio burst called FRB 121102 with a 76-meter Lovell telescope and a 56% duty cycle over a period of 157 days. An artist’s impression of an orbital modulation model where the FRB ancestor (blue) is in orbit with an accompanying astrophysical object (pink).

    cosmic radio burst

    Christie Mickaliger Rapid cosmic radio burst are abstruse and rarely reveal bursts of energy far beyond the Milky Way. These events last for milliseconds and exhibit the typical scatter sweep of the pulsar radio. They emit as much energy in a millisecond as the sun emits in 10,000 years, but the physical phenomenon that produces them is unknown. To date, over a hundred FRBs have been detected, but some of these have yet to be seen to reproduce. The first repeater, FRB 121102, was discovered in 2014.

    Although its iterative nature was not revealed until 2016. In 2017, astronomers pinpointed the location of the FRB 121102 source and reported that it is in a star-forming region of a dwarf galaxy more than 3 billion light-years from Earth. Now, Dr. from the University of Manchester. Kaustubh Rajwade and colleagues have found that the radio broadcast of CRB (cosmic radio burst) 121102 follows a cyclical pattern, with an explosion period of up to 90 days with a silence period of 67 days.

    repeating cosmic radio burst

    This is an exciting result because it is only the second system that we think we see this activity in blast activity,” said Dr. Rajwade said. “Detecting a periodicity provides a significant restriction on the origin of the explosions, and the activity cycle may argue against an antecedent neutron star. To the team’s surprise, the FRB 121102 cycle time scale is almost 10 times the 16-day periodicity demonstrated by the recently discovered FRB 180916.J10158 + 56.

    This exciting discovery highlights how little we know about the origins of FRBs. said Dr. Duncan Lorimer. A researcher at the University of Virginia. To get a better idea of these periodic sources and clarify their origins, a large amount of additional FRB observations will be required. International efforts reveal a 157-day cycle in unusual cosmic radio burst. Research into one of the great mysteries of astronomy today has found this thanks to a four-year observation expedition to the Jodrell Bank Observatory (cosmic radio burst).

    Using the long-term monitoring capabilities of the iconic Lowell telescope, an international team led by Jodrell Bank astronomers is studying an object known as the cosmic radio burst (CRB), which is much less bright & the radio emits pulses. Using 32 explosions discovered during the campaign, in combination with previously published observation data, the team found that the FRB emission known as 121102 follows a cyclical pattern, lasting approximately 90 days.

    radio burst

    There is a silence with a radio boom in the window. A period of 67 days. The same behavior is repeated every 157 days. This discovery provides an important clue to identify the origin of these cryptic fast cosmic radio burst. The presence of a regular sequence in burst activity can mean that powerful (cosmic radio burst) bursts are associated with the orbital motion of a large star, neutron star, or black hole. Dr. from the University of Manchester leading the new research.

    Kaustubh Rajwade said: This is an exciting result because it is only the second system, where we believe we see this activity in (cosmic radio burst) burst activity. Detecting a periodicity provides an important belief. The origin and activity of the Chakra burst can be argued in against a preceding neutron star. The FRB repeat can be explained by hitting the magnetic axis of highly magnetized neutron stars but current data scientists believe the 157-day precedence period can be difficult to interpret as they require larger magnetic fields.

    Arecibo radio telescope

    The existence of FRB was only discovered in 2007 and was initially thought to be one-way events, such as a one-sided detonating event related to the star. This image was partially changed once FRB 121102, originally discovered with the Arecibo radio telescope on November 2, 2012, was repeated in 2016. Until now, however, no one believed that these explosions were carried out in a regular pattern. Professor Benjamin Steppers, who leads the MeerTrap project to search for FRB using the Mircat telescope in South Africa, said.

    This result was based on regular monitoring with the Lovell telescope and also on non-arrest. They were as important as the detainees. In a new article published in the Royal Astronomical Society‘s monthly notices, the team confirms that FRB 121102 is the second dual source of FRB that exhibits such periodic activity. To their surprise, the time scale for this cycle is approximately 10 times greater than the 16-day period previously demonstrated by a repeated source, FRB 180916.J10158 + 56.

    Which was recently discovered by the CHIME telescope in Canada. This exciting discovery highlights how little we know about the origins of FRB, says Duncan Lorimer. Who is Associate Dean for Research at the University of West Virginia and Ph.D. Student Devansh Aggarwal helped develop the data analysis technique that led to the discovery. He continued, It will take a lot of FRB to get a clear picture of these periodic sources and clarify their origins. The results appear in the Royal Astronomical Society‘s monthly notice.

    That is why the particle X17

    The particle X17
    That is why the particle X17

    That is why the particle X17 and a new fifth force probably do not exist. Each time, there is an experiment in physics that gives a result that is inconsistent with the universe as we understand it today. Sometimes, this is nothing more than an error inherent in the execution of a specific design or a particular experiment. On other occasions, it is an analysis error, where the way in which the experimental results are interpreted is to blame. On other occasions.

    That is why the particle X17

    The experiment is correct but there is an error in the theoretical predictions, assumptions or hypotheses that were used to extract predictions that did not match the experiment. By the way, below is the list of scientific possibilities, the assumption that we have really discovered something new for the universe. It is not limited to historical examples (such as the infamous “Oops-Leone” particle, a severe statistical fluctuation that was confused with a Upsellon particle predicted and discovered elsewhere).

    But also includes modern examples (Since 2010) such as the fastest neutrino outcome of the OPERA experiment, which was discovered due to faulty equipment. For example, the way carbon is formed in the universe is through a triple alpha process: where three helium nuclei (with 2 protons and 2 neutron apes) merge into beryllium-8, which is the first to decompose. It lasts only a small fraction of seconds. If you can get a third helium core there fast enough, before beryllium-8 returns to two heliums.

    the particle X17

    It can produce carbon-12 in an excited state. Which is normal after releasing a gamma. It will decompose again to carbon-12 – Re. While this occurs easily in the stars in the giant red phase, it is a difficult interaction to test in the laboratory, since it requires controlling the nucleus in an unstable state of high energy. However, all we can do is produce beryllium-8, quite easily. We do this by not combining two helium-4 nuclei, but by combining lithium-7  with 3 protons and 4 neutrons with a proton, forming beryllium-8 in an excited state.

    In theory, that beryllium-8 must decompose into two helium-4 nuclei but since we formed it in an excited state. It would have to emit a gamma-ray photon before it could decompose. If we make beryllium-8 at rest, then that photon must have a predicted energy distribution. To preserve both energy and momentum, your photon must have a probability distribution of how much kinetic energy it has in relation to the initial beryllium-8 nucleus. However, above a certain energy, you may not get a photon at all.

    velocity of the photons

    Because of Einstein’s E, you may find an electron and its antimatter equivalent, a particle-antiparticle pair instead of a positron. Depending on the energy and velocity of the photons. We would expect to have a specific distribution of the angles that form the electrons and the positrons with each other: many events with small angles between them, and then decrease continuously As their angle of incidence increases, below a minimum frequency, when it reaches 180.

    In 2015, a Hungarian team led by Attila Krosznahorke made this measurement and discovered something surprising: its results did not match the standard predictions of nuclear physics. Instead, once it reaches an angle of approximately 140. It obtains a small but significant excess of events. This is known as the Atomoki anomaly, and with the meaning of the 6.8 sigma. It seems to be much more than a statistical fluctuation, the team has given an extraordinary explanation of why it is due to a new lighter light.

    gamma-ray photon

    The effect of which could never be detected before but an experiment in a place with an unexpected result is not equivalent to a new scientific advance. In a sense, this is an indication of a new physics, if many possible explanations are correct. In the worst case, it is a complete mistake. However, the reason for all the recent attention is that the same team conducted a new experiment, where they created a helium-4 nucleus in a very excited state, one that would later decompose by emitting a gamma-ray photon.

    At sufficiently high energies, gamma rays will again produce pairs of electrons / positrons, and in a certain range of energy, they will look for a change in their opening angle. They found that another asymmetric increase appeared at a different (lower) angle but with the same energy as the anomalies observed in the first experiment. This time, the affirmation of statistical significance is 7.2-sigma. Which also seems to be much greater than the statistical fluctuations.

    light-dark matter

    This seems to correspond to a particular explanation, a new particle, a new interaction and a new fundamental force. The results of the collaboration with XENON that depend on the turn and the independent turn show no evidence of a new particle of any mass. Including a light-dark matter scenario and that encompasses the atomic anomaly and moderately heavy the black material will fit with a new particle must be known directly and clearly before being accepted as ‘real’.

    And so far X17 has not appeared in every direct detection experiment. Let’s go deeper, now, to see what is really happening in the experiment, if we can discover the weak points, the places where we are likely to get an error, if it exists. Although it is now being carried out in a second experiment. Two experiments were performed using the same technique and the same technique with the same researchers. In physics, we need independent confirmation, and this confirmation is the opposite of independent.

    electron positron

    Second, there are independent experiments that should have done or seen this particle, if it exists. Dark Matter’s discoveries should see evidence of this. The lepton collider that produces electron positron collisions at these relevant energies should see evidence of this particle and along the same lines as the cosmic boy who cried wolf. This is at least the fourth new particle announced by this team, including an anomaly of the 2001 era (9 MeV).

    An anomaly of the 2005 era (multiparticles) and a 2008 -Yug (12 MeV) discrepancy, all of which have been defamed. But the most dubious evidence against comes from the data itself. Take a look at the graph above, where you can see the calibration data (low energy) in blue. Do you realize that the curve (solid line) connects the data very well (black dots)? Except, is it between approximately 100 ° and 125 ° ! In those cases, the data is a poor fit that is taken as “a good calibration”, as more events should be observed.

    helium and beryllium

    If you only consider data between 100/ 125 °, you will never use this calibration. This is unacceptable then they redistribute that fraction to request high energy data (blue line in relief), and low and admiring. This is a great calibration to reach about 100. At that time you begin to see an excess of signal Despite the quality or defective calibration. There is no physical reason for two separate experiments (helium and beryllium) to produce signals at different angles.

    This is what we call a “sketch” and confirms why we actually confirm that we are independent. Accelerator models, used to bombard lithium and manufacture B-8 in use that first … [+] show an unexpected discrepancy in the angles between electrons and positrons. The team first reported that it found particle marks in 2016 and now they report more brands in a separate experiment. If the results are confirmed, particle X17 could help explain dark matter.

    electromagnetism

    And scientists of mysterious matter believe that the universe contains more than 80% of the mass. It can be the bearer of a ‘fifth force’ beyond four in the standard model of physics: gravity, electromagnetism, weak atomic force and strong atomic force. Most researchers looking for new particles use accelerators that simultaneously destroy microscopic particles at high speeds and release explosions. The largest of these accelerators is the Large Hadron Collider in Europe.

    Where a particle scientist named Higgs Boson was discovered in 2012, who had been hunting for decades. Professor Krasznahorkay and his co-authors have taken a different approach, conducting small experiments that trigger subatomic particles called protons in the nuclei of different atoms. In 2016, he saw pairs of electrons and positrons when the beryllium-8 nucleus went from a high energy state to a low energy state. He found deviations from what he expected to see when there was a large angle between the electron and the positron.

    17 million electron volts

    This discrepancy can be better explained if the nucleus emitted an unknown particle that was subsequently divided into an electron and a positron. This particle has to become a boson, which is the type of particle that carries the force, and its mass will be about 17 million electron volts. It is heavy like 34 electrons, which is quite light for such a particle. The Higgs boson, for example it is more than 10,000 times heavier.

    Because of his mass, Professor Kursenjork and his team called the imaginary particle X17. They have now observed a strange behavior in the helium-4 nucleus that can also be explained by the presence of X17. This last discrepancy is statistically significant. A confidence level of seven sigma, which means that there is only a very small probability that the result is a coincidence. This is beyond the usual Five Sigma standard for a new discovery, so the result seems to be that there is some new physics here.

    Higgs Boson

    However, in 2016 the new announcement and one faced suspicions of the physical community, the kind of doubt that did not exist when the two teams together announced the discovery of the Higgs Boson in 2012. So why is it so difficult for physicists to believe in a new boson of light as if it could exist! First, such experiments are difficult and, therefore, data analysis. The signs may appear and disappear. In 2004, for example, in Debrecen, the group found evidence that they explained the possible existence of a similar boson.

    But the signal disappeared when they repeated the experiment. Secondly, one must ensure that the existence of X17 is consistent with the results of other experiments. In this case, the results with beryllium in 2016 and the new result with helium can be explained by the existence of X17 but an independent investigation by an independent group is still required. In 2012, in a workshop in Italy, Professor Boszanark and his group first reported weak evidence (at the level of three sigma) for a new boson.

    dark matter

    Since then, the team repeated the experiment with advanced equipment and successfully reproduced the results of beryllium-8. Which is reassuring, since helium-4 has new results. These new results were presented at the HIAS 2019 Symposium of the National University of Australia in Canberra. What does this have to do with dark matter, scientists believe that most of the matter in the universe is invisible to us. The so-called dark matter will only interact very weakly in the general case.

    We can speculate that it is present because of its gravitational effect on distant stars and galaxies, but that it has never been detected in the laboratory. So where does the X17 come from in 2003, one of us (Boehm) showed that there could be a particle like X17, which works with Pierre Fayette and is single. It moves between particles of dark matter in the same way that photons. Aarticles of light, do so for ordinary matter.

    mystery of dark matter

    In the scenarios I propose, lighter dark particles can sometimes form pairs of electrons and positrons, similar to Professor Gersenhork’s team. This scenario has led to several discoveries in low energy experiments. Which have rejected many possibilities. However, X17 has not yet been ruled out, in which case the Debrecen group has explored how dark matter particles communicate in the world. The X17 particle can solve the mystery of dark matter.

    Professor Attila Korszonhorke and his colleagues from ATOMKI (Hungarian Debrecen Nuclear Research Institute) recently published an article that hints at the existence of a previously unknown subatomic particle called [X17]. The team first reported that it found particle marks in 2016, and now they report more brands in a separate experiment. If the results are confirmed, particle X17 can help explain dark matter and scientists of mysterious matter believe that the universe contains more than 80% of the mass.

    gravity or electromagnetism

    It can be the carrier of a ‘fifth force’ beyond four in the standard model of physics: gravity or electromagnetism, weak atomic force and strong atomic force. Most researchers looking for new particles use highly accelerators that simultaneously destroy microscopic particles at high speeds and leave the explosion. The largest of these accelerators is the Large Hadron Collider in Europe. Where the Higgs Boson, a particle scientist who had been hunting for decades, was discovered in 2012.

    Professor Krasznahorkay and his co-authors have taken a different approach, conducting small experiments that trigger subatomic particles called protons in the nuclei of different atoms. In 2016. They observed pairs of electrons and positrons when the beryllium-8 nucleus went from a high energy state to a low energy state. This last discrepancy is statistically significant. A confidence level of seven sigma, which means that there is only a very small probability that the result is coincident.

    This is beyond the usual five sigma standard for a new discovery, so the result seems to be that there is some new physics here. However, the new announcement in 2016 and one encountered skepticism from the physical community.The kind of skepticism that did not exist when the two teams together announced the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012. So why is it so difficult for physicists to believe in a new light boson as if it could exist!

    gravitational effects

    Since then, the team repeated the experiment with advanced equipment and successfully reproduced the results of beryllium-8, which is reassuring, since helium-4 has new results. These new results were presented at the HIAS 2019 Symposium of the National University of Australia in Canberra. What does this have to do with dark matter, scientists believe that most of the matter in the universe is invisible to us. The so-called dark matter will only interact with the general case in a very weak way.

    We can speculate that it exists from its gravitational effects on distant stars and galaxies but it has never been detected in the laboratory. In 2003, one of us (Boehm) showed that there can be a particle like X17, which works with Pierre Fayette and is single. Although the results of Debrecen are very interesting, the physical community will not be convinced that a new particle has been found until independent confirmation.

    Therefore, we can expect many experiments around the world that are looking for a new light boson to start looking for evidence of X17 and its interactions with pairs of electrons and positrons. If confirmed, the next discovery may be the Dark Matter particle itself. Factor X17, a new particle for physics can solve the mystery of dark matter. Most researchers who hunt for new particles use accelerators.

    electrons and positrons

    Why dark matter, ancient rocks tell us a lot about the history of the Earth and can indicate cosmic encounters of billions of years with dark matter. Attila J. Koszanhorke & his colleagues have taken a different approach at Atomki (Atomic Research Institute in Debrecen, Hungary). Conducting small experiments that trigger subatomic particles called protons in the nuclei of different atoms. In 2016, they observed the addition of electrons and positrons (antimatter versions of electrons).

    When the beryllium-8 core went from a high energy state to a low energy state. This discrepancy can be better explained if the nucleus emitted an unknown particle that was subsequently “divided” into an electron and a positron. Large hadron collider, most researchers looking for new particles use heavy accelerators like the Large Hadron Collider in Europe. Because of its mass, Krasznahorkay and his team called the imaginary particle X17.

    This last discrepancy is statistically significant: a confidence level of seven sigma. However, the new announcement in 2016 and one encountered skepticism from the community. The kind of skepticism that did not exist when the two teams together announced the discovery of the Higgs Boson in 2012. So why is it so difficult for physicists to believe in a new light boson as if it could exist? First, such experiments are difficult and therefore, data analysis.

    distant stars and galaxies

    The signals may appear and disappear. In 2004, for example, in Debrecen, the group found evidence that they interpreted the possible existence of a similar lighter boson. What does this have to do with dark matter, scientists believe that most of the matter in the universe is invisible to us. The so-called dark matter will only interact with the general case in a very weak way. We can speculate that it is present because of its gravitational effect on distant stars and galaxies.

    But it has never been detected in the laboratory. What place is it made of, it’s complicated … There are inexplicably large voids of space, but what exactly is “empty”! In 2003, one of us (Boehm) showed that a particle like X17 could exist, working with Pierre Fayette and alone. It moves between dark matter particles in the same way as photons, or light particles, do for ordinary matter. In the scenarios I propose.

    Dark matter particle

    The lighter dark particles can sometimes form pairs of electrons and positrons that is similar to that observed by the Krasznahorkay team. Therefore, we can expect many experiments around the world in search of a new light boson to begin looking for evidence of X17 and its interactions with pairs of electrons and positrons.

    If confirmed, the next discovery may be the Dark Matter particle. Celine Bohm directs the School of Physics at the University of Sydney. Tiber Kibedi is a principal investigator in nuclear physics at the National University of Australia. This article originally appeared in Conversation.

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    NASA names new mars rover perseverance, The Verge

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    New mars rover
    NASA names new mars rover perseverance, the Verge

    NASA names new mars rover perseverance, the Verge. NASA’s next mars rover receives its official name, persistence is the last of a long line of Red Planet Rovers that will be named by school-age children. From Sozourner in 1997 to Spirit and Opportunity Rovers, which landed on Mars in 2004, Curiosity was looking for new mars rover. The last of a long line of Red Planet rovers named by school-age children. The concept of this artist represents the persistence of NASA’s Mars exploration vehicle on the surface of the red planet.

    new mars rover

    The astronomical mission of perseverance involves the discovery of signs of past microbial life. It will also mark the climate and geology of the planet, and collect rocks from Mars and dust samples for future missions to return samples from Mars to Earth, paving the way for human exploration of the Red Planet. Persistence is based on rover curiosity settings. It is car-shaped, approximately 10 feet long (not including hands), 9 feet wide and 7 feet high (approximately 3 meters long, 2.7 meters wide and 2.2 meters long).

    But with 2,260 pounds (1,025 kg), it weighs less than a compact car. In a sense, the rover is similar to the parts that any living creature would need in order to “survive” and be able to detect. The final assembly and verification continues at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida today. The Perseverance launch period begins on July 17, 2020. Its objective is to land at the Mars Zero Crater shortly after 3:40 p.m. EST on February 18, 2021 (12:40 p.m. PST).

    NASA names new mars rover

    The official name of NASA names new mars rover was announced on March 5, 2020 by Thomas Zurbuchen. Associate Administrator of the Scientific Mission Directorate at NASA headquarters in Washington and during a celebration at Lake Braddock High School in Burke, Virginia. Zurbuchen was at school to congratulate Alexander Mather, seventh grade. Who participated in the rover essay contest winner of the agency’s name, with 28,000 admissions of K-12 students from all US states and territories.

    Alex’s entry captured the spirit of exploration, Zurbuchen said. Like the first exploration mission, our rover faces challenges and will make incredible discoveries. It has already crossed many obstacles to take us to the point where we are ” processing for today’s launch. Alex and his classmates are Artemis Generations, and they are taking the next steps into the space that leads to ” Mars. That motivating work will always require persistence.

    NASA names new mars rover perseverance

    We can’t wait to see that nameplate on Mars or NASA names new mars rover perseverance. It was an opportunity to help the agency that puts humans on the moon and would do it again soon, Mather said. This rover from new mars rover will help pave the way for human presence there and I wanted to try to help in any way I can. Denial of the challenge was not an option. Staying forever connected to the mission, Mather will also receive an invitation to travel to the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida with her family when the rover begins its journey when it begins this summer.

    NASA’s Mars Rover 2020 now has a name: ‘Perseverance‘, nickname: endurance, tenacity, tenacity, clarity and luck: A seventh-grade student from Virginia was named the winner of the “Name the Rover” contest. Starting March 5, 2020, at 8:27 p.m., 8 minutes, NASA released the high-resolution panorama of Mars.  The 1.8 billion pixel image was captured by Curiosity Rover. NASA officials named the new mars rover 2020. Perseverance a new name on Thursday.

    new mars rover perseverance

    The space agency named Alexander Mather, a seventh grader at Lake Braddock High School in Virginia, as the winner of the “Name the Rover” contest. Mather was one of 28,000 entries for the national competition. We will discover many failures on the way to Mars and we will find many failures on the way to NASA names new mars rover perseverance. However, we can persevere, Mather said in her winning essay, Humanity will always be in the future.

    NASA’s Curiosity Rover found a strangely salty “ancient oasis” on Mars Thomas Zurbuchen, Associate Administrator of NASA’s Scientific Mission Directorate, saying Mather’s trial captured the spirit of exploration and that’s why finally won. Achieved.. Like all previous scouting missions, our rover faces challenges, and is going to make incredible discoveries … Alex and his classmates are the Sagebrush Generation. They are going to take the next step in space before the quest.

    Mars Rover

    There are mares, Zurbuchen said in a statement. He said that inspiring work will always require persistence. We can’t wait to see that nameplate on Mars. An illustration released by NASA on February 10, 2020, depicting the explorer Mars 2020 drilling a sample of rock drilling on Mars. Posted by NASA on February 10, 2020 An illustration shows the new mars rover 2020 rover drilling a sample of rock drilling on Mars Rover. He said that NASA / JPL-Caltech Mather’s interest in space grew when he was in Alabama.

    He went to camp, where he saw a Saturn V – rocket that launched to the Apollo mission astronauts to the moon and he became an astronaut, he said. Helping Mars Rover pave the way for a human presence there Milegi and I wanted to try to help in any way he could,” Mather said in a statement. Stating that he had decided to join the naming contest and Aeon why choose. He did not deny the challenge. Students entering the competition.

    the red planet

    From kindergarten through 12th grade, devised appropriate word names for the rover and were asked to submit a short essay to explain why they chose the name. NASA tests its latest rover ‘paves the way for human exploration of the red planet‘ The competition started in August 2019 when the Young Student Wanted space agency wanted to challenge them to learn about a real NASA mission and apply skills and ways to Critical Thinking Questions about a place you might not have heard With the help of 4,700 volunteer judges.

    And entries were 155 out of 28,000 students Semi-finalists and then narrowed down to nine finalists: shortlisted names were. Endurance, Tenacity, Promise , perseverance, vision, clarity, talent, courage and courage. Mather received the NASA Grand Prize, NASA has also recognized the contribution n of the semifinalists. This cartoon depicts NASA’s upcoming Mars rover, launching in 2020. This cartoon depicts NASA’s upcoming new mars rover, launching in 2020.

    NASA / JPL-Caltech “The names and proposed luminous trials of the 155 semifinalists are etched with lines on a silicon chip. Lori Glaze, director of NASA’s Planetary Science, said in a statement. One of the widths of human hair More than a thousand people aboard the rover will be transferred to Mars. “Internationally, more than 770,000 participants voted in a public poll, where they did not. They voted for their favorite names according to J. after participation.

    NASA pilot Nick Wiltsy

    Nine finalist students were interviewed by a panel that included NASA astronauts Jessica Watkins, NASA pilot Nick Wiltsy and Clara Ma, who in 2009 was named new mars rover Curiosity a sixth-grade student More. Listen to the sounds of Mars, courtesy of NASA Insi ght Mission NASA. B Mather’s Cape Canaveral Florida will be invited to the July Air Force Station or spacecraft launched in August. Persistence, currently weighing over 2,300 pounds, ready to strike in February 2021.

    The rover will rotate on the red planet for at least a year on Mars, the equivalent of 687 days on Earth. Mather’s essay will also be featured on the NASA website. The mission to launch this rover is scheduled for a time when Earth and Mars are in good orbital position with each other according to NASA officials. Which means they would travel and land on new mars rover during that time. It takes less power. The image of new mars rover was made with the Hubble Space Telescope when the planet was 50 million miles from Earth on May 12, 2016.

    NASA’s Mars

    The image of Mars was made with the Hubble Space Telescope when the planet was 50 million miles Earth since May. 12, 2016. The ESA / NASA’s new mars rover 2020 rover mission is part of NASA’s Mars exploration program. Which has been a long-term search for robotic exploration of the red planet. The mission is taking it a step further by studying the habitat of Mars, collecting and storing signs from the past life of microorganisms and major rock and soil samples.

    NASA officially completed its mission for its previous Rover Opportunity last month after spending 15 years wandering around Mars. NASA ended the mission for new mars rover, 15 years later. The opportunity quietly left after a massive dust storm on June 10, according to the planet NASA. The rover was pronounced dead when scientists sent more than 800 commands and asked him to respond, and received no response.

    New mars rover
    NASA names new mars rover perseverance, the Verge
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    New circulating cyclone at the Jupiter South Pole

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    The jupiter south pole
    The jupiter south pole, juno spots new circumpolar cyclone

    The jupiter south pole, juno spots new circumpolar cyclone, new circulating cyclone at the Jupiter South Pole: NASA’s Juno spacecraft spied on the new Jovian cyclone on November 3, 2019, during the 23rd Scientific Pass of the gas giant. Juno Spots was launched on August 5, 2011. Which included an ambitious mission to see Jupiter under dense clouds. On July 4, 2016, the probe finally reached the orbit of the giant planet. Shortly after their arrival, Juno’s cameras discovered huge cyclones surrounding the Jovian poles: nine in the north and six in the south.

    the jupiter south pole

    With each flyby, the data reinforced the idea that there were five wind shocks that revolved around the central pole at the south pole in a pentagonal pattern and that the system seemed stable. None of the six storms indicated permission to join other cyclones. Data from the Juno Jovian infrared aerial mapping instrument (JIRAM) indicates that we suffer from a cyclone of a cyclone around a hexagonal design in the center, a team member of Dr. Alessaro Mura.

    Who is a researcher at the National Institute of Astrophysics of Rome. This new addition is smaller in stature than its six more established cyclone brothers. It is about the size of Texas. Perhaps JIRAM data from future fights will increase cyclones in the same way as its neighbors. New data from the JIRAM instrument indicates an average cyclonic wind speed of 362 km (225 mph) and  comparable to the speeds found in its six most established polar allies.

    jupiter’s south pole from the juno spacecraft

    This infrared image, captured by Juno’s JIRAM instrument on November 4, 2019 and shows a new small cyclone (to the right of the image) grouped around the south pole of Jupiter or jupiter’s south pole from the juno spacecraft . JunoCam of the investigation obtained a visible light image of the new cyclone. The researchers said that both datasets not only shed light on Jupiter’s atmospheric processes but other gas giants such as Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are also being discovered. It also sheds light on the atmospheric processes of Earth’s cyclones.

    These cyclones are new climatic events that have not been seen or predicted before. Juno scientist Dr. Cheng Li told the University of California, Berkeley. Nature is revealing a new physics about the movement of liquids and how the atmospheres of giant planets work. We have begun to explain this through observations and computer simulations. The jupiter south pole or Juno’s excess of the future will help us understand how cyclones evolve over time.

    jupiter from the south pole

    Jupiter is the 5th planet, jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet in the solar system: It is a gas giant with one thousandth of the mass of the Sun, but two and a half times the mass of all the other planets in our solar system. Jupiter from the south pole or Jupiter is classified as a gas giant with Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Together. These four planets are sometimes called Jovian or outer planets. The planet was known to ancient astronomers and was associated with the mythology and religious beliefs of many cultures.

    The Romans called the planet by the Roman god Jupiter when viewed from Earth, Jupiter can reach apparent magnitudes of -2.94, which makes it the third brightest object on average in the night sky after the Moon and Venus. Mars can briefly match Jupiter’s brightness at certain points in its orbit. Jupiter is mainly composed of hydrogen with a quarter mass of helium. It can also have a rocky core of heavy elements.

    Due to its rapid rotation, Jupiter’s shape is an oblique spheroid (it is near a slight but noticeable bump around the equator). The outside atmosphere can be seen in multiple bands at different latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms within their interaction limits. An important result is the Great Red Spot. A giant storm known to have been seen for the first time by a telescope since at least the 17th century. Around the planet there is a misty planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere.

    jupiter south pole

    There are also at least 66 moons, including four large moons called Galilean moons which Galileo Galilei first discovered in 1610. Ganymede, the largest of these moons, has a larger diameter than Mercury. Jupiter has been discovered by the robotic spacecraft several times and especially during the first overflight missions of Pioneer and Vyzer and later by the Galileo orbiter. The most recent probe that traveled to Jupiter was the New Horizons spacecraft bound for Pluto in late February 2007.

    This probe used gravity to increase its speed from Jupiter. Future exploration objectives in the Jovian system include possible liquid oceans covered with ice on the Europa Moon. Jupiter has been known since ancient times and is visible to the naked eye in the night sky. In 1610, Galileo Galilei discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter using telescopes. The first observation of moons other than Earth. Jupiter is 2.5 times more massive than all other planets combined.

    juno spot

    So massive that its bicenter with the Sun is located on the surface of the Sun (1,068 Solar Ready from the center of the Sun). It is 318 times heavier than Earth, has 11 times its diameter and is 1300 times more than Earth. Many have called it a “failed star,” even compared to calling the asteroid a “Earth“. As impressive as it is, extrasolar planets with a much larger mass have been discovered juno spot.

    However, it is believed that for a planet with a diameter as large as its composition, adding additional mass will only result in gravitational compression (provided ignition occurs). There is no clear definition of what separates an increasingly large planet like Jupiter from a gray dwarf, although the latter has distinct spectral lines, but Jupiter must be approximately seventy times larger in any situation than it would become.

    The fastest rotation rate of any planet within the solar system is also that of Jupiter, which makes a complete revolution in its axis in less than ten hours, resulting in an easy view through an amateur Earth-based telescope. It is most famous feature is probably the Great Red Spot, which is a storm bigger than Earth. The planet is always covered with a layer of clouds. Jupiter is generally the fourth brightest object in the sky.

    The Moon and Venus

    Although sometimes Mars looks brighter than Jupiter. While others seem brighter than Jupiter. It has been known since ancient times. The discovery of Galileo Galilei and that was the discovery of the four massive moons of Jupiter, Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto (now known as the Moon of Galilee), the first discovery of an astronomical range centered on Earth. This was an important point in favor of the heliocentric theory of Copernicus planetary movements.

    Galileo’s open support for Coparican’s doctrine got him into trouble with the investigation. Physical characteristics and environment. Jupiter is composed of a relatively small rocky core, surrounded by metallic hydrogen, surrounded by liquid hydrogen, surrounded by gaseous hydrogen. There is no clear boundary or surface between these various phases of hydrogen; Conditions mix easily from gas to liquid as soon as it descends. The amount of methane, water vapor, ammonia and “rock” in the atmosphere is detected.

    equatorial atmosphere

    There are also traces of carbon, ethane, hydrogen sulfide, neon, oxygen, phosphine and sulfur. The outermost layer of the atmosphere consists of crystals of frozen ammonia. This atmospheric composition is very close to the composition of the solar nebula. Saturn has a similar structure, but Uranus and Neptune have very little hydrogen and helium. The upper atmosphere of jupiter undergoes a differential rotation, an effect first noticed by Giovanni Cassini (1690).

    The rotation of Jupiter’s polar atmosphere is ~ 5 minutes longer than in the equatorial atmosphere. In addition, clouds of clouds of different latitudes flow in opposite directions in the prevailing winds. The contradictions of these conflicting traffic patterns cause storms and turbulence. Wind speeds of 600 km / h are not uncommon. A particularly violent storm, approximately three times the diameter of the Earth, is known as the Great Red Spot.

    Juno solved the 39-year-old mystery of the power of the jupiter south pole – June 7, 2018. Since NASA’s Vyzar 1 spacecraft flew from Jupiter in March 1979, scientists have wondered about the origin of Jupiter’s electricity. That meeting confirmed the existence of Jovian electricity. Which had prevailed for centuries but when the venerable explorer was injured. The data showed that radio signals connected to electricity did not match the description of the radio signals generated by lightning here on Earth.

    atmosphere of a giant planet

    In a new article published today in Nature, NASA’s Juno mission scientists describe the ways in which the rays in Jupiter really correspond to Earth’s electricity. However, somehow, there are two types of electric polar opposite. ‘Diamond Rain’ Saturn and Jupiter falls on the BBC – October 14, 2013: Diamonds used by silver screen stars can form on Saturn and the jupiter south pole, American scientists have calculated. The new atmospheric data for gas giants indicates that carbon is as abundant as its luminous crystals, they say.

    Thunderstorms convert methane into soot (carbon), which falls into graphite and then into diamond pieces. Amateur astronomers working with professional astronomers have fired two fireballs this summer, illuminating the atmosphere of Jupiter, the first time that terrestrial telescopes have captured relatively small objects that burn in the atmosphere of a giant planet. On June 3, 2010 and August 20, 2010, respectively, two fireballs were produced, which produced bright sunspots on Jupiter that were visible through a garden telescope.

    The image of the northern lights was taken before the arrival of NASA’s Juno spacecraft the following week, which would spend a year monitoring the largest planet in the solar system. Jupiter is known for colored storms such as the Great Red Spot that continuously rotate in the planet’s atmosphere. But it is a powerful magnetic field, which means that there are bright light shows at its poles. Like Earth, auroras form when high-energy particles enter a planet’s atmosphere near their magnetic poles and collide with gas atoms, jupiter has auroras.

    atmospheric gases

    Like Earth, the magnetic field of the largest planet in our solar system is affected by a burst of charged particles from the Sun. This magnetic compression funnel moved the particles lower in the atmosphere toward the poles of Jupiter. There, atmospheric gases temporarily excite or stop electrons, after which, when de-excited or recombined with atmospheric ions, auroral light is emitted. The representation represented represents the magnificent magnetosphere around the jupiter south pole in action.

    In the inserted image published last month, the Lunar X-ray Observatory and that orbits the Earth shows an unexpectedly powerful X-ray light emitted by the Jovian Auroras, represented in fake-colored violet. The Chandra box is mounted on an optical image taken at a different time by the Hubble space telescope. This dawn on Jupiter was observed in October 2011, when the Sun emitted a powerful coronal mass ejection (CME).

    powerful magnetosphere

    Aurora on the jupiter south pole, three luminous points are formed by magnetic flux tubes that connect to the bottom of the Jovian moons Io (left), Ganymede and Europe. In addition, you can see a very bright almost spherical region, called the main ellipse, and a faint polar aurora. Jupiter has a very large and powerful magnetosphere. In fact, if you can see Jupiter’s magnetic field from Earth. It will appear five times larger than the full moon in the sky, despite being so far from the sky.

    This magnetic field picks up a large stream of particle radiation in the Jupiter radiation belt, in addition to producing a dramatic gas bull and a flow tube connected to the ion. Jupiter’s magnetosphere is the largest planetary structure in the solar system. Pioneer research confirmed the existence that Jupiter’s massive magnetic field is 10 times stronger than Earth’s and has 20,000 times more energy. The driver-sensitive devices discovered that the “north” magnetic pole of the Jovian magnetic field is at the geographic south pole of the planet.

    Jovian magnetosphere

    The axis of the magnetic field is inclined 11 degrees from the jovian rotation axis and is displaced from the center of the fluctuation of some way.  The axis of the earth’s sphere. The pioneers measured the bow of the Jovian magnetosphere at a width of 26 million kilometers (16 million miles), with the magnetic tail extending beyond the orbit of Saturn. The data showed that the magnetic field fluctuates rapidly on the edge of the Jupiter Sun due to variations in pressure in the solar wind, an effect studied in more detail by the two spacecraft of the traveler.

    It was also discovered that high-energy atomic particle currents are ejected from the Jovian magnetosphere and go to Earth’s orbit. Energy protons were found and measured in the Georgian radiation belt and electrical currents were detected between Jupiter and some of its moons, especially Io. The Great Red Spot is an anticyclonic storm on planet Jupiter 22 ° south of the equator; That lasted at least 300 years. The storm is enough to be visible through ground telescopes.

    It was first seen around 1665 by Cassini or Hooke. This dramatic view of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter and its surroundings was obtained by Vyzer 1 on February 25, 1979. When the spacecraft was 5.7 million miles (9.2 million kilometers) from Jupiter. Here you can see details of clouds as small as 100 miles (160 kilometers). The colorful and wavy cloud pattern to the left of the red spot is an exceptionally complex and variable wave motion region to give an idea of the Jupiter scale.

    Great Red Spot

    The white oval storm just below the Great Red Spot has the same diameter as the Earth. Such storms are not uncommon in the atmosphere of gas giants. Jupiter also has a white oval and a brown oval, which are less anonymous storms. White ovals consist of relatively cold clouds within the upper atmosphere. The brown oval is warm and is within the “normal cloud layer”. Such storms can last for hours or centuries. It is not really known what causes the red color of the Great Red Spot.

    Theories supported by laboratory experiments assume that the color may be due to “complex organic molecules, red phosphorus or other sulfur compound” but consensus has not yet been reached. The Great Red Spot is remarkably stable, first seen 300 years ago. Several factors may be responsible for its longevity, such as the fact that it never finds solid surfaces, which causes its energy to spread and its movement is driven by the internal heat of Jupiter.

    Simulations suggest that the place absorbs small atmospheric disturbances. In early 2004, the Great Red Spot was about half as big as 100 years ago. It is not known how long the Great Red Spot will last. If it is the result of normal fluctuations. The Great Red Spot should not be confused with the Great Dark Spot, seen in the atmosphere of Neptune by Wager 2 in 1989. The Great Dark Spot was an atmospheric hole. Not a hurricane and no longer existed since 1994 (although another location similar appeared further north).

    black spot on Jupiter

    On October 19, 2003, Belgian astronomer Olivier Meekers photographed a black spot on Jupiter. Although this is not a rare occurrence, he caught the fantasy of some science fiction fans and conspiracy theorists who came to speculate that the location was evidence of nuclear activity in Jupiter. A month before Galileo hit the planet. starry. Galileo carried approximately 15.6 kg of plutonium-238 from a ceramic, such as 144 plutonium-134 granules as a source of energy.

    The individual granules (which would be expected to separate during entry) initially contained approximately 108 grams at 238 Pu (approximately Galileo in Jupiter introduced approximately 10% of each) and are reduced by a significant factor of approximately 100. Jupiter has 67 known moons. This gives Jupiter the largest number of moons with reasonably safe orbits of any planet in the solar system. The largest of all, the four Galilean moons and were discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610 and were the first objects to orbit an object that was not the Earth or the Sun.

    Since the late nineteenth century, dozens of small Jovian moons have been discovered and have received the names of lovers, conquests or daughters of the Roman god Jupiter or his Greek counterpart Zeus. The Galilean moons are the largest and largest objects that orbit around Jupiter, with the remaining 63 moons and rings only 0.003% of the total orbital mass. Eight of the jupiter south pole  or jupiter’s moons are regular satellites which consist of Jupiter and almost circular orbits.

    inclination and eccentricities

    Which are not closely related to the equator of Jupiter. Galilean satellites have an almost spherical shape due to the mass of the planets. If they are in direct orbit around the Sun, they would be considered planets. The other four regular satellites are much smaller and closer to Jupiter; These serve as sources of dust that form the rings of Jupiter. The rest of Jupiter’s moons are irregular satellites with retrograde and retrograde orbits far removed from Jupiter and have greater inclination and eccentricities.

    These moons were probably captured by Jupiter from the solar orbits. Since 2003, 16 irregular satellites have been discovered and have not yet been named. He discovered a dozen new moons of Jupiter, including a ‘strange’ Science Daily – July 17, 2018. Jupiter has been found orbiting twelve new moons: 11 “normal” outer moons, and one they call “weirdo.” Astronomers first observed the moons in the spring of 2017, when they were looking for objects from the distant solar system as part of a search for a potentially larger planet beyond Pluto.

    Hubble Jupiter Moon Europe

    Possible place of Hubble Jupiter Moon Europe – Water stains spreading on September 26, 2016. Astronomers using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope have proposed that water vapor currents can be released from the surface of Jupiter’s moon Europe. Other Hubble observations that make this discovery indicate an icy moon with water vapor at high altitude. The observation raises the possibility that the missions of Europe can sample the ocean of Europe without drilling kilometers of ice.

    Hubble discovers the water vapor outlet of Jupiter’s Moon Europe Science Daily – December 12, 2013. NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope has observed water vapor over the southern polar region of Jupiter’s Moon Europe. Providing the first strong evidence of water flow from the lunar surface. It is already believed that Europe disturbs a liquid ocean beneath its icy crust, which makes the Moon one of the main objectives in the search for a habitable world away from Earth.

    Jupiter’s icy moon

    This new discovery is the first observational evidence of water vapor removed from the lunar surface. New discovery of life at Jupiter’s Moon Europe Live Science – November 17, 2011. Scientists say that Europe, Jupiter’s icy moon, meets not one but two of the important requirements for life. For decades, experts have known about the vast underground ocean of the moon. A potential home for living organisms and now a study suggests that the ocean usually lives for life through chaotic processes near the lunar surface.

    Get the required energy flow Jupiter Moon’s Buried Lakes Avoca Antarctica Live Science – November 17, 2011. Some of the scariest regions on Earth are providing scientists with tempting signs of water just a few miles below the icy crust of Jupiter’s moon, Europe. The unique ice break on the moon for more than a year has surprised scientists. Some have argued that they are signs of the rupture of an underground ocean. While others believe that the crust is too thick for water to pass through.

    solar system

    But new studies of ice formations in Antarctica and Iceland have provided clues for the construction of these puzzling features. Indicating that the water is close to the previously thought surface of the moon. Jupiter Moon holds ‘Magma Sea’ BBC – May 12, 2011: Io is the most volcanic world in the solar system and scientists believe they now have a better idea of why. Jupiter’s moon emits about 100 times more lava on its surface every year than Earth.

    A reassessment of NASA’s Galileo probe data suggests that all this activity is being fed from a huge ocean of magma beneath the IO crust. Atmosphere Io PhysOrg – June 14, 2010: Ayo is one of the four moons of Jupiter that Galileo discovered after converting his new telescope to heaven. He and his contemporaries were surprised because he showed that celestial bodies could revolve around objects other than Earth. Jupiter’s Moon Europe has enough oxygen for life.

    global geological map

    New research suggests that Europe’s subsurface ocean has enough oxygen available to support oxygen-based metabolic processes for life on Earth. In fact, there may be enough oxygen to support complex organisms, similar to animals, that demand more oxygen than microorganisms. Scientists complete the first global geological map of Ganymede Jupiter satellite physics – September 16, 2009. Scientists have gathered the first global geological map of the largest moon in the solar system and, in doing so, have gathered new evidence about the formation of a large and icy satellite.

    The map actually gives us a complete understanding of the geological processes we see today that are shaped like a moon. Jupiter is a system of planetary rings, known as rings of the Jupiter or Jovian ring system. It was the third ring system discovered in the solar system after Saturn and Uranus. It was first thoroughly investigated by the Vyzer 1 space probe in 1979 and by the Galileo orbiter in 1990. It has also been seen from the Hubble and Earth space telescope for the past 23 years.

    rings of Gossamer

    The largest available telescopes are required for terrestrial ring observations. The Jovian ring system is weak and consists mainly of dust. It has four main components: a thick internal edge of particles known as the “halo ring”. A relatively bright, exceptionally thin “main ring”; And two wide, thick and faint “rings of Gossamer” exterior, named for the moons of the materials that are composed: Amalathea and Thebe.

    The main and crown rings have dust effects emanating from moons, adrasty and other unlikely parental bodies, resulting in high speed effects. The high-resolution images obtained by the New Horizons spacecraft in February and March 2007 revealed a rich fine structure in the main ring. In visible and near infrared light, the rings have a red color, which is neutral or blue, except red. The size of the dust in the rings varies but the cross-sectional area is the largest for the redundant radius particles.

    sunlight and photology

    Which is approximately 15 um in all the rings, except the halo. The halo ring probably dominates the submicrometry dust. Jupiter rings formed by the pattern of sunlight and photology. A new study reported that a weak extension of the outermost ring beyond the orbit of Jupiter’s Moon Tebe and others saw deviations from an accepted ring formation model. Which resulted in shadows of dust particles and rings of light solar.

    They’re done. It turns out that the extended range of the outer ring and others in Jupiter’s rings are actually made in the shade. The legend: In Roman mythology, Jupiter played a role similar to that of Zeus in the Greek Pantheon. He was called Jupiter Optimus Maximus Soter (Jupiter Best, Greatest, Savior) as the patron deity of the Roman state, in charge of law and social order. He was the main deity of the Capitoline Triad along with Juno.

    the planet Jupiter

    Jupiter is a compound of mercury derived from the Latin archaic Iovis and Pater (Latin for father), it was also used as a nominal case. Jove Iov-, is an English formation based on the root of the oblique cases of the Latin name. Your Vedic counterpart baby Dyaus. The name of the deity was also adopted as the name of the planet Jupiter, and it was the original name of the day of the week that would be known in English as Thursday (the etymological root can be traced to several Romance languages, including (ascended Iowm).

    Also included genetic Iovis, root Iovi and ablative, an irregular strain. Linguistic studies identify his name as derived from the Indo-European compound “O Padre Dios,” the Indo-European god from which Germanic tivez also derives (after which he was named Tuesday). The Greek Zeus and the French Judeys, Castilian Juves, Italian Giovids and you leave Catalans, all from Latin Iovis des, while the English take their Nordic counterpart, Thor. The largest temple in Rome was that of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Capitoline Hill.

    Jupiter in Greek mythology

    Here he worshiped together with the Capitoline Triad, along with Juno and Minerva. Jupiter was also worshiped on Capitoline Hill in the form of a stone, known as Jupiter Lapis or Jupiter Stone, which was sworn as an oath stone. The temples of Jupiter Optimus Maximus or the Capitoline Triad as a whole were generally built by the Romans in the center of the new cities of their colonies. It was once believed that the Roman god Brihaspati was in charge of cosmic justice.

    And in ancient Rome, people swore Jove in their courts, singing “Por Jove!” As it is used to direct the general expression. It is still used as an antiquarian today. In addition, “jovial” is a common average adjective that is still used to describe people who are naturally cheerful, optimistic and intelligent. Jupiter in Greek mythology, Jupiter as Jade, is the king of heaven and earth and the king of all Olympic gods.

    Sometimes it is represented by throwing jagged lightning to remind humans that reality is created by the electromagnetic energy that carries the magic and mystery of our hologram through the network’s consciousness towards zero points. In Roman mythology, Jupiter was known as the god of justice. He was appointed King of the Gods after his overthrow (Chronos in Greek mythology) of Lord Saturn and the Titans in a special meeting.

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    The jupiter south pole, juno spots new circumpolar cyclone
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    Supermassive black hole at the very center of the disk

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    Supermassive black hole
    Astronomers map surroundings of supermassive black hole

    Astronomers map surroundings of supermassive black hole. XMM-Newton uses light echoes to map dynamic black hole. Astronomers map supermassive black holes as the physical spiral heads in the direction of the black hole. Astronomers map the surroundings of supermassive black holes. As the physical spiral moves towards the black hole. This heats up and emits X-rays which, in turn, resonate and resonate when interacting with nearby gas.

    supermassive black hole

    These regions of space are highly distorted and distorted due to the extreme nature of the black hole crush and strong gravity. Now, a team of astronomers and astronomers has used ESA’s XMM-Newton X-ray Observatory to track these light echoes and map around the black hole at the center of the highly variable active galaxy SAS 13224-3809 has prepared. These images show the environment of a black hole mapped using ESA’s XMM – Newton X-ray Observatory on Ambient Gas.

    As the material enters the black hole, it rotates to form a flattened disk, as shown here, heating up as it happens. At the very center of the disk, near the black hole. Region of very hot electrons, with a temperature of about a billion degrees, known as a corona, produces high-energy x-rays that flow into space. Occurs Alston et al used the echoes resonance of this radiation, like XMM-Newton to characterize the surroundings of the supermassive black hole.

    XMM-Newton

    It stormed the black hole at the core of the active galaxy IRAS 13224-3809. One of the most variable X-ray sources in the sky, with very large and rapid fluctuations in brightness of a factor of 50 in just hours. It’s going through By tracking X-ray echoes, it became possible to auto-detect the dynamic behavior of the corona from which the rapid X-ray emission originates. The corona is displayed here as a field that changes in size and brightness, floating over a black hole.

    The researchers discovered that the corona of black holes inside IRAS 13224-3809 resized incredibly fast in a few days. IRAS 13224-3809, also known as LEDA 88835 is located approximately one billion light-years away in the Centaurus planetarium. The galaxy houses a relatively small supermassive black hole (approximately one million solar masses) at its center. It is one of the most variable X-ray sources in the sky, experiencing very large and rapid fluctuations in brightness of a factor of 50 in just hours.

    black hole

    Everyone is familiar with how their voices resonate differently when they speak in a classroom than they do in a cathedral. It is only due to the geometry and materials in the room that behave and make the sound bounce back. different, “Dr. William Alston, astrophysicist at Cambridge University. Similarly, we can see how the X-ray radiation echoes propagate to the area around a black hole so that it disappears in eccentricity before a bulk of field geometry and position emerges.

    It is like the cosmic eco-location. Since influencing gas dynamics is strongly associated with the properties of consumed black holes, Drs. William and his colleagues were able to determine the mass and spin of a supermassive black hole in IRAS 13224-3809, because it was sunk inward, looking at the properties of matter. As the black hole collapses, the inductive material forms a disk. Above this disk is a region of very hot electrons, with a temperature of about a billion degrees.

    map dynamic black hole

    Although the researchers expected to see resonant echoes using maps of the region’s geometry. They also saw something unexpected: the crown itself changed incredibly quickly in a few days. As the crown changes in size, the light echoes: if the cathedral ceiling rises and falls, it changes slightly, causing an echo in his voice, said Dr. William. By tracking the light echoes. We were able to track this changing corona and, even more excitingly.

    We got a much better value for the mass and spin of the black hole than we were able to determine if the corona was fit. It wasn’t changing. We know that the mass of a black hole cannot fluctuate, so any change in echoes must occur under the gaseous atmosphere. Scientists made the longest observation of the accelerated black hole made with XMM-Newton. Which was collected from more than 16 spacecraft orbits in 2011 and 2016, totaling 2 million seconds in 23 days.

    dynamic black hole

    This combined with the strong and short-lived variability of the black hole, allowed the team to model echoes extensively during daytime periods. Their results appear in the journal Nature Astronomy. Astronomers have mapped the gas vortices of a highly fluctuating black hole. Dynamic black hole are cosmic bodies of such terrifying density that even light cannot escape their extreme gravitational claws. But just because they’re invisible doesn’t mean we can’t find ways to see them.

    This time, astronomers have mapped the shape of a supermassive vortex in the host galaxy IRAS 13224-3809. Which is located in the Centaurus constellation approximately one billion light-years from Earth. To achieve this. The researchers observed one of the longest black holes at the European Space Agency’s (ESA) XMM-Newton X-ray Observatory. This is how accumulation works, as matter in space is pulled into a black hole, it reaches such a high speed that matter moves up and down, millions of degrees.

    supermassive black hole

    And even that higher temperature, this overheated vortex generates radiation which can be detected by space telescopes as X-rays collide and bounce off gas particles near the whirlpool. Artist’s impression of the black hole that is fed by ambient gas with Corona fluctuations. By looking at those interactions, scientists say they are similar to how we can hear sounds in a cell and how sound recombination can inform us about the shape and structure of 3D spaces. reveal ‘light echoes’.

    Obsolete form of supermassive black hole. Similarly, we can see how the geometry of a field and a state of matter echo X-ray radiation in the vicinity of a black hole before it emerges, said astrophysicist William Alston of the University of Cambridge. A technique called X-ray gathering mapping is not new, but it is evolving. Captured during 16 spacecraft orbits from 2011 to 2016, Alston and his team’s light echo readings came over 23 days of looking into space at the heart of IRAS 13224-3809.

    As he did so, he saw something he wasn’t expecting. The corona of a black hole, a super hot electron sphere that hovered over the object’s accretion disk, burst dramatically over time, with its brightness only in 50 hours. Varying by a factor, as the shape of the crown changes, the light echoes: if the cathedral ceiling moves up and down a bit, the resonance of his voice is changing, says Alston. We were able to track this changing corona and, even more excitingly.

    distant galaxies

    We got much better values for the mass and spin of the black hole that we could determine if the corona size was not changing. Although this vision of the IRAS 13224-3809 supermassive black hole may be unprecedented in terms of detailed mapping, the external state of achievement may not last long. The researchers now hope to use the same method to examine and map the black hole physics of many other distant galaxies.

    Hundreds of supermassive black holes are already within XMM-Newton’s long gaze and even more so when ESA’s Athena satellite (slated for 2031) will launch. In fact, everyone wanders around to tell us what remains to be seen but it certainly seems like we’re on the verge of some incredible discoveries here.

    This work shows quite clearly that the future of studying black holes is very different,” says astronomer Matthew Middleton of the University of Southampton in Britain, depending on how they vary. It will focus on a series of new missions to be launched in the next 10 years, ushering in a new era of understanding of these strange objects (Supermassive Black Hole). The findings are exposed in Nature Astronomer.

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    Astronomers map surroundings of supermassive black hole
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    Ultra-massive white dwarf star is like none ever seen before

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    White dwarf star
    Ultra-massive white dwarf star is like none ever seen before

    Ultra-massive white dwarf star is like none ever seen before. Astronomers spot ultra-massive white dwarf with unique atmosphere White dwarf with a unique carbon hydrogen mixed atmosphere. Astronomers observe ultra-massive white dwarf star with unique atmospheres, astronomers have discovered an ultra-heavy white dwarf with a unique carbon-hydrogen mixed atmosphere. Astronomers have discovered an ultra-heavy white dwarf star with a unique atmosphere of carbon and hydrogen.

    white dwarf star

    This star is approximately 150 light years away. It has a mass of 1.14 solar masses and is probably produced by the fusion of two white dwarfs in a narrow binary system. In the process of fusion, the impression of two white dwarf star of an artist. Depending on the combined mass, the system can explode in a thermonuclear supernova or accumulate in a heavy white dwarf. Image Credit: NASA/ ESA.

    Carbon-Hydrogen Mixed Atmosphere

    An astronomer at the University of Warwick as we had never seen before. In the process of fusion, the impression of two white dwarfs of an artist. Depending on the joint mass, the system may explode in a thermonuclear supernova or WD J0551 + 4135 is chained in a heavy white dwarf. You can expect to see an outer layer of hydrogen, sometimes helium, or just a mixture of helium and carbon.

    You don’t expect to see this combination of hydrogen and carbon. Because there should be a thick layer of helium in the middle of the restriction. When we saw it, it made no sense. WD J0551 + 4135 was first identified in the ESA data study for the Gaia star mapping spacecraft. Dr. Holland and his colleagues followed the spectroscopy with the William Herschel telescope. By breaking the light emitted by the star.

    what is a white dwarf star

    Astronomers were able to identify the chemical composition of their atmosphere and discovered that it contained unusually high levels of carbon. To solve the puzzle, the researchers spied to discover the true origin of the star. White dwarf star are remnants of our own sun-like stars that have burned all their fuel and shed their outer layers. Most are relatively light, about 0.6 times the mass of our Sun. It is in a solar mass of 1.14, about twice the average mass.

    Despite being heavier than our Sun, it is compressed two thirds of the Earth’s diameter. The age of the white dwarf is also a clue. Older stars orbit faster than younger stars than the Milky Way, and the object moves more than 99% of other nearby white dwarfs with the same cooling age, suggesting that this star is older than it seems. White Dwarf with a unique carbon-hydrogen, we have a composition that we can explain through normal stellar evolution.

    white dwarf star definition

    And twice the average mass of a white dwarf and a kinematic age greater than the cold age. We are very sure how a star becomes a white dwarf star and shouldn’t do it. The only way to explain it is if it was created by merging two white dwarfs. The theory is that when a star in a binary system expands at the end of its life, it will wrap its mate, bringing its orbit closer to its orbit, reducing the first star. The same will happen when the second star extends. In billions of years.

    The emission of gravitational waves will reduce the orbit forward to the point where the stars merge. While it is predicted that the white dwarf will merge, this would be particularly unusual. Most of the mergers in our galaxy will be between stars of different mass, while this fusion seems to be between two stars of equal size. There is also a limit to how large the resulting white dwarf can be: more than 1.4 solar masses are believed to explode in a supernova.

    which stars are white dwarfs

    Although it is possible that these explosions may occur at a slightly lower mass. So Tara is useful for demonstrate how heavy a white dwarf can grow and still survive because the fusion process resumes the cooling of the star. It is difficult to determine how old it is! The white dwarf probably disappeared about 1.3 billion years ago but the two original white dwarfs may have existed billions of years ago.

    It is one of the few white dwarf star ever identified, and the only one through its creation. Dr. “It’s not that there are many white dwarfs, but more than that you would expect to see if some of them are formed by fusion,” said Hollands. In the future we can use a technique to learn about the basic structure of white dwarfs with stellar vibrations, which will be an independent method to confirm that this star formed from a fusion. Perhaps the most exciting aspect of this star is that it must have still failed to explode as a supernova.

    supernova

    These giant explosions are really important in mapping the structure of the universe, because they were detected at great distances. However, there is still a lot of uncertainty about what kind of star systems make it a supernova state. It may seem strange, since it measures the properties of failed supernova and the similar future gives us self-thermonuclear. Saying a lot on the road to analysis. The discovery is reported in an article published in a magazine called Nature Astronomy.

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    Dark matter candidates, new candidate particle for dark matter

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    Dark matter candidates
    Dark matter candidates, new candidate particle for dark matter

    Dark matter candidates, new candidate particle for dark matter, dark matter candidates is the mysterious substance that constitutes approximately a quarter of the universe. New candidate particle for Dark Matter: Hexaquark D-Star. Dark Matter is a mysterious substance that constitutes approximately a quarter of the Universe. Dark matter is the mysterious substance that constitutes approximately a quarter of the universe.

    dark matter candidates

    There is strong indirect evidence of its existence from cosmic primary radiation measurements, discrepancies in the radial dependence of the galactic rotation curves and gravitational lenses. Despite its apparent role in the universe, the physical origin of dark matter remains unknown. Scientists suspect that it is made up of invisible particles that do not reflect or absorb light, but are capable of controlling.

    New candidate particle for dark matter candidates, the recently discovered Bosonic particle, D * (2380) Hexquar. Simulation of the large-scale structure of the universe with dark matter fibers in blue and galaxy-forming locations in yellow. Image by Zaryja Luke / Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The mass structure of the universe is simulated with dark matter candidates fibers in blue and places of formation of the galaxy in yellow.

    The hexaquar is composed of six quarks, which are basic particles that generally combine into three to form protons and neutrons. Importantly, six quarks in a D * (2380) result from a boson particle. Which means that when there are multiple D * (2380) they can be combined in very different ways for protons and neutrons and several hexquak D * (2380) could be grouped as the universe cooled and expanded to constitute the fifth state of the matter.

    dark matter particle candidates

    The origin of Dark Matter in the Universe is one of the most important questions in science and one that, so far, is an empty question,” said Professor Watts. Our first calculations indicate that Hexaquark condensate (2380) is a new viable phenomenon for dark matter. This new result is particularly exciting because it does not require any new concept for physics. The next step in establishing this new dark matter candidates will be to better understand D * (2380)

    Hexquax’s conversations about when they are attracted and when they repeat themselves, said Dr. Bashkanov said. We are leading new measurements to make hexaquarks d * (2380) within an atomic nucleus and see if their properties differ when they are in free space.The team article was published in Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics Journal. How dark matter candidates interacts with Ordinary Matter. New measurements of a group of colliding galaxies suggest that mysterious matter is only probable and normal matter only through gravity.

     dark matter

    Many of the conclusions of this contrast were drawn by scientists from observations of three years ago. About 27 percent of the universe is dark matter but scientists still know very little about what it really this dark matter candidates does not emit or reflect light, making it difficult to study. Its gravity can bend the path of light known as gravitational lenses, which has helped astronomers detect that something is out.

    A team of researchers used the Hubble telescope 3 years ago to observe colliding galaxies in the Abell 3827 cluster located approximately 1.3 billion light-years from Earth. The visible matter in the collision appeared to be the dark matter of galaxies. Which scientists say could indicate that, in addition to gravity, other substances could also sense dark matter. The image shows four central galaxies in cluster Abell 3827 with ultraviolet light from Hubble imaging (blue) and infrared light from ALMA observations (red).

    At these wavelengths, scientists can determine the extent to which a galaxy is distorted behind the cluster by the gravity of normal, dark matter. He revised the observations for a new study at the Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile. It is a power telescope capable of detecting details of Hubble observations. The data detected previously undescribed dark matter locations around the collision.

     dark matter candidates star

    We got a higher resolution view of a distant galaxy using ALMA than the Hubble Space Telescope, said Lelaya Williams. Aresearcher at the University of Minnesota and a co-author of the paper. Compared to our previous comments, Dark Matter’s exact position is clear. This indicates that the dark matter candidates of most galaxies remained with them during the collision. Dark matter feels the effects of gravity exclusively or only weakly interacts through other forces.

    Alternatively, the group can move toward Earth, in which case we wouldn’t expect to see any lateral shift in the dark case, the scientists said in the statement. Assuming the truth that dark matter will move to the front or back of the group, making it difficult to detect offsets. Astronomers around the world are searching the sky for clues to the nature of dark matter.

    nature of dark matter

    Many hypotheses have evolved to explain matter as scientists use computer models to figure out what to look for. The various properties of Dark Matter leave the telltale sign, Andrew Robertson, a researcher at Durham University in the United Kingdom and co-author of this work. A particularly interesting test is that the Dark Matter interaction will make the dark matter candidates gripper more spherical, “Robertson“. Information is taken from Science World.

    Dark matter candidates
    Dark matter candidates, new candidate particle for dark matter
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    How to make online classes more interactive

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    Make online classes
    How to make online classes more interactive

    How to make online classes more interactive, commitment is the key to the success of any virtual classroom. Here’s how you can make your online classes more engaging! Ensuring that students participate in online classes is an important part of the learning experience. This ensures that they get the most out of their lessons and makes sure there are no leaves. Virtual classrooms are different from normal classrooms and students can be easily distracted.

    How to make online classes more interactive

    When teachers strive to make their online classes more engaging and interactive. And students naturally participate more in the lessons and stay focused. Engaging attached students is beneficial for everyone. Change the flow of the classroom and improve the experience for all other students and teachers and learn how to make online classes more interactive. Here are some ways that teachers can make their online classes more engaging. How to make your online classes more attractive!

    This may seem like a cliché, but it is important for engagement. The story has the power to attract a student’s attention by making the text more believable. Facts and figures are an integral part of learning but stories feed on students’ emotions and inspire them to be with them. When studying something, different stories make it easier for them to retain the content and better understand the text. As an online teacher, don’t be afraid to make your lessons more reliable by using videos or other resources.

    how to make an online class more interactive

    A lighthearted video can be left unlicensed for a few laughs and smiles but it’s best to believe that they will enter the minds of students. Creating creative and fun presentations and videos will ensure your students learn more while getting some chakli in class. Get to know your students and find out what they like. Once you figure it out, create content that connects emotionally. For example, if your students like superhero movies.

    Include a few movie scene clips in your lessons to help them remember difficult concepts. For example, if some dates are difficult to retain in history lessons, combine them with names of superheroes or going through blank slides with long black text is extremely tedious. Anyone would benefit from it, especially students. Therefore, you need to make things more colorful and dynamic. Introduce some graphics into your lessons, like famous memes, some short animated video clips, GIFs, movie scenes, etc.

    how to make online classes

    When students are taking weekly tests, have a fun countdown timer. For example, for a science-based course, you can show your students a snippet from “The Big Bang Theory” to make things fun. Different ways to help students study, taking classes online and studying at home without a physical school and library structure for students can be challenging. Deviations can occur at home or in places of distressed learning that can affect test results and students learning abilities.

    To make it easier to maintain what you teach your students, use flashcards and games at the end of each lesson. Many online platforms allow teachers to create games and flashcards related to the intended subject. They are mostly educational and have audio clips to help students with pronunciation. In ManyCm, users can add images and GIFs as digital props, which is a great way to make their online classes more engaging.

    quizzes and educational games

    Drag and drop animated GIFs into ManyCm to create new effects for your live broadcast, online classes, and video calls. Check out this blog post and learn how to improve your online learning with many more! Interactive quizzes are an excellent tool for students to become interested in what they have learned. Use online platforms where quizzes use the game to get answers, keeping students hooked. Instead of constantly going on social media or watching TV.

    They will focus on interactive quizzes and educational games. Provide different ways to make classes easier for your students. Google offers a variety of shades to make learning online exciting. Finally, you can use Gmail to share notes with your students and encourage everyone to interact. For example, ask students to create a Gmail account for classes. Use Google Drive to upload slides and lecture recordings that are easy for your students to use.

    Google Hangouts can be used for private conversations between students and any issues you may have. Copies of exams can be shared with them in person via Gmail. Use Google Excel Sheets to track daily student performance and progress, bookmark sheets, timesheets and more. Creating a community around your online classrooms can really help keep students out of “school hours.” Group chats can be created for student discussion forums on course content and other topics.

    online classes more interactive

    It is important to give students feedback and show them that you care about their growth. When you build this sense of community, you can also get feedback on what you can improve in your virtual classrooms. With Google Forms, you can also create a survey for students to fill in anonymity related to their point of view in online classes. The success of any online class depends on many moving parts, and the participation of students is the most important of them. Since virtual classrooms have been around for some time.

    We must do our best to make online classes more attractive. This will ensure that students learn more each time they come to class. It’s about offering engaging content that adds value to your learning experience. Best Online Education Background Ideas, enhance your online lessons and help students learn more with these online education background ideas! Online education background can play an important role in online classes. The wrong background can be very disruptive and hamper the learning experience for students.

    online education

    However, the right background can keep your students busy and help them learn more. In this blog post, we have compiled the top  online education background ideas for your next online lesson. Why use virtual funds for online learning, whether you teach from home or have a setup space for your online learning, changing your actual origin can always be a hassle, not to mention expensive. Meanwhile, having the same experience without any innovation can be boring for students after a few lessons.

    The best option is to use virtual online education funds, which gives you:

    • Full background control
    • Possible changes to keep students interested
    • Power to increase your classes online

    Here are 6 ideas for the best educational backgrounds online. If you want to use the virtual background in your online classes, virtual videos and lectures, check out several. To use the Virtual Fund feature, users need a subscription to Studio, Premium, or Enterprise. A straightforward way to give your online lessons a “learning environment feel” is to use the classroom background.

    In ManyCam, when you go to the Virtual Background tab and click Replace. One of the available options is Classroom, if you find other classroom images online that you think will be perfect for your lesson, all you have to do is save them to your computer. Then follow these steps:

    • Go to ManyCam (Virtual Background tab)
    • Click on the picture box to select your virtual background
    • Click Custom, browse and select the saved image.

    speakers and lecturers

    As far as online education background ideas go, it is the most practical. Most online teachers, especially college professors, public speakers and lecturers, use slide shows as part of their lessons. If you have your slide deck ready and you want students to pay attention to your content, use them as your virtual backdrop. Another attractive background idea is to use a map as a background. Depending on the map you select.

    It can be embedded as part of your text. Otherwise, it can also just be a subtle backdrop, not too distracting, but still interesting. If you are on Windows, you can add live maps, satellite images, and any other website as the background. As we have done in this example: If you are looking for the most useful educational background ideas online, here is one for you. In ManyCam, you can simply remove your actual background and add a blank image as a background.

    create a learning environment 

    Then you can write it down and draw it like a blackboard. This can help you create a learning environment in which students learn through both pictures and audio. You can also add blackboards or chalkboard pictures for a more realistic classroom experience. Another virtual background idea is as a background for your YouTube video. It’s perfect for online teachers to explore their creativity and add some novelty to their lessons.

    You can choose videos related to your theme and abstract videos with beautiful images to serve as the animated background. If you have your own YouTube videos, this can be an opportunity to merge the two worlds. Custom online education background ideas, the possibilities of virtual funds are truly endless. In addition to all the online education background ideas mentioned above, you can also create virtual backgrounds with personal images and videos to use.

    Best of all, you don’t have to be a design expert because there are free online tools to help bring your ideas to life. One of the web tools available is Canva, and it comes with tons of templates. Check out the full tutorial! Once you’ve created your image, you can download it to your computer and then add it as your virtual background at first, following the steps we have mentioned. These virtual background ideas can be applied to any type of online learning from K-12.

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    How to complete YouTube watch time and subscribers

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    YouTube watch time
    How to complete YouTube watch time and subscribers

    How to complete YouTube watch time and subscribers. Hello friends, I welcome you again to your website, today I will tell you how all of you who can complete 4000 hours of clock time and get 1000 subscribers as soon as possible on your YouTube channel. If everyone wants to know that everyone wants to learn how they will complete This YouTube milestone, everyone will continue reading this post from start to finish.

    YouTube watch time

    Because today I am going to tell you all the information about it and according to the people who explain it. People can easily fulfill this condition, as soon as possible, so the publication will be very interesting. Therefore, you will give this post a complete introduction from start to finish so that you can understand all people correctly.

    how much watch time required for youtube monetization

    Your friends and all of you also want to activate monetization of your YouTube channel on a good amount of YouTube channel, so everyone should follow YouTube condition and apply it to their channel. If there is no line, today I will tell you all about these tips and tricks. If everyone uses it on their YouTube channel.

    Then easily all of you who have your 4000 hours, your Youtube Watch Time 1000 channel You can easily subscribe. In a previous post, I told you that all of you, who are in 2021, can win online from YouTube. So if everyone wants to read that post, below you will easily find a link. People will also be able to read this post, let us know in this post how you will all meet this condition on your YouTube channel.

    How to complete 4000 hours of youtube watch time and 1k subscribers, so guys, let me tell you how all of you who are in 4000 hours can meet with long time and 1000 clients in a very easy way, also a great way to do it. I want to share this with all of you because I have also completed this mind stone by embracing the same method on my YouTube channel and monetizing my YouTube channel and it has..

    watch time youtube monetization

    So I thought this method should also be shared with you that Now you monetize your YouTube channel, then I will tell you about that method so that everyone can monetize your YouTube channel. Look guys, first of all, everyone has to do it yourselves, the easier it is to use, the more they will play all the people’s videos, then they will all be, and then they will have to make videos of trending topics on the YouTube channel of the persons.

    Depending on what topic it is or what it is related to then you should remove all the people related to it and which one is the last one. Usage is increasing to make your videos within 10 minutes, if you make a 10 minute video the video will appear every 5 minutes. How to meet YouTube watch time and subscribers, so you all have to do your YouTube video trending topic and where you do very high quality stuff.

    All these things should be kept in mind that the higher the quality of the video, the more viral it is for all of you. Then everyone should try to make the best videos so that the video users and their channel also like it and the best way to subscribe is to make videos related to all of you that are educational because these videos go viral very quickly.

    youtube watch time hours

    Easily all of you who have your 4000 hours, your youtube watch time 1000 channel You can easily subscribe, they are very different Live, anything that matures as much as a thumbnail of your video. The attraction will be as much as the news will appear in your video, so take good care of it, so watch your video too.

    Increase membership on your YouTube channelTitle, Tag and description, the little mistakes that many newcomers to YouTube make are that they don’t keep the title track and description of their YouTube videos correctly.

    So if everyone wants their videos to go viral on YouTube, then they should focus too much on the title of Your YouTube video, moreover, not everyone has put their video on it and the album should put their title into action too, so your video is likely to go viral, then you should follow all these things, only then your video, which is on YouTube, will go viral and your video will turn blue and when we arrive.

    YouTube Watch Time and subscribers

    The time will complete itself so all of you should take care of these three things, and the tag is also to add to all of you, which is related to your video, not all of you have tagged you and all of you, all of you are watching unnecessary videos on YouTube. All of you Time Waste and focus on your content, don’t download or post any other videos and try to create your own content, whenever possible, all your Facecam videos.

    So if you all work on YouTube then it is 1 month, then your channel will definitely grow, so all of you keep in mind, all those people will definitely make your channel bigger See more time You can increase it. So friends today, I told everyone in this post how all of you who completed 4000 hours of play time and 1k subscribers.

    How to complete YouTube Watch Time and subscribers, if everyone likes this post and definitely share it Make your friend All the world still has some confusion, if there is any doubt you should all tell me in the comments below, I will surely reply to each of your comments, then check out JaiHind-Jai, thanks…..

    YouTube watch time
    How to complete YouTube watch time and subscribers
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