Hubble Seas, Twelve Images Of The Same Galaxy Divided By Gravitational Lenses
Hubble Seas, twelve images of the same galaxy divided by gravitational lenses.

Hubble Seas, Twelve Images Of The Same Galaxy Divided By Gravitational Lenses

Hubble discovers that “staggering in the galaxies” Observations may insinuate the nature of dark matter. Using the NASA / ESA Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers have discovered that the brightest galaxies within the clusters of galaxies are “inlays” in relation to the center of mass of the group.

This unexpected result is inconsistent with the predictions made by the current standard dark matter model. An additional analysis can provide insight into the nature of dark matter, perhaps even indicating that the new physics is functioning.

More than 25 percent of all mass energy in the universe constitutes dark matter, but it cannot be seen directly, which makes it one of the greatest mysteries of modern astronomy. Invisible metamorphic dark matter surrounds galaxies and galaxy clusters alike.

The latter are large-scale clusters of a thousand galaxies submerged in hot differential gas. These clusters have very dense nuclei, each of which contains a massive galaxy called the “brightest cluster galaxy” (BCG).

Hubble Seas, twelve images of the same galaxy divided by gravitational lenses: An effect called a strong gravitational lens has allowed the NASA / ESA Hubble Space Telescope to see the same distant galaxy multiple times. Called PSZ1 G311.65-18.48, the galaxy is about 11 billion light-years from Earth and a massive foreground galaxy is 4.6 billion light-years away from the lens.

This Hubble image shows a massive galaxy cluster, which is about 4.6 billion light-years away. 12 images appear within four arcs along their edges; These are copies of the same galaxy called PSZ1 G311.65-18.48, which is about 11 billion light-years away.

Three of these arcs appear in the upper right of the image, while a counter appears in the lower left, partially obscured by a bright star in the foreground within our Milky Way. NASA / ESA / Hubble / Rivera-Thoresen et al.

Hubble uses gravitational lenses to study objects that would otherwise be very sensitive and even too small for its sensitive instruments. The known Senserturst arc, PSZ1 is no exception to G311.65-18.48, one of the brightest gravitational galaxies.

The lens makes multiple images of this galaxy 10-30 times brighter. This allows Hubble structures to look as small as 520 light years away, a rare detailed observation of a distant object.

This compares quite well to the star-forming regions in galaxies in the local universe, allowing astronomers to study the galaxy and its environment in great detail.

Hubble’s observations showed that PSZ1 G311.65-18.48 is an analogue of galaxies that existed long ago in the history of the universe: an era known as the era of times, an era that only 150 million after the Great Bang began to over the years.

This was an important time in the early universe, ending the dark ages, the era before the first stars were created when the universe was dark and filled with neutral hydrogen.

Once the first stars formed, they began to radiate light, producing the high-energy photons necessary to ionize neutral hydrogen. It converted space matter into a primarily ionized form, in which it still exists today.

However, to ionize interhydrogen hydrogen, the high-energy radiation from these first stars would have to escape from their host galaxies without first being absorbed by interstellar matter.

So far only a very small number of galaxies. High-energy photons of the leak have been found in deep space. How this light survived the first galaxies remains a mystery.

PSZ1 G311.65-18.48 analysis helps astronomers add another piece to the puzzle: It appears that at least a few photons can exit through narrow channels in a gas-rich neutral medium in the galaxy. This is the first observation of a long theorem process. While this process is unlikely to be the primary mechanism that led to the recreation of the universe, it may very well provide a decisive boost.

The standard dark matter model (cold dark matter model) predicts that once a cluster of galaxies has returned to a “rest” state after experiencing the turbulence of a melting event, BCG does not move from the center of the cluster. This is due to the enormous gravitational effect of Dark Matter.

But now, a team of Swiss, French and British astronomers has analyzed ten clusters of galaxies seen with the NASA / ESA Hubble Space Telescope, and discovered that their BCGs are not fixed in the center.

Hubble data indicates that they have been “staggered” around the center of mass of each group, when the group of galaxies has returned to a resting state after fusion. In other words, the center of the visible parts of each cluster of galaxies and the center of the total mass of the cluster, including its halo of dark matter, are displaced, up to 40,000 light years.

“We discovered that BCFL, the Swiss astronomer, David Harvey, and the lead author of the article, David Beevi, point out that BC” indicates that, instead of a dense area in the center of the galaxy cluster As the cold dark matter model predicts , has a very shallow central density. It is an important sign of strange forms of dark matter in the heart of galaxy clusters. “

The wobble of the BCG can only be analyzed since the galaxy clusters studied also act as gravitational lenses. They are so large that they give spacetime enough deformation to distort the light of the most distant objects behind them.

This effect, called a strong gravitational lens, can be used to create a map of the dark matter associated with the cluster, which allows astronomers to locate the exact position of the center of mass and then from this center. You can measure the displacement of BCG.

If this “wobble” is not an unknown astronomical event and is actually the result of Dark Matter’s behavior, then it is inconsistent with the standard Dark Matter model and can only be explained when Dark Matter particles interact with each other. Can: strong contrasts with the current understanding of dark matter. This may indicate that a new fundamental physics is needed to solve the mystery of dark matter.

Frederick Courbin, co-author of EPFL, also concluded: “We expect larger surveys such as the Euclid Survey, which will expand our data set. Then we can determine if the wobble of the BGC is the result of a new astrophysics event or a new fundamental physics. Both will be exciting! “

Hubble detects little known groups of dark matter: This graphic shows how the light of a distant Kaiser is replaced by a huge foreground galaxy and small flakes of dark matter along the path of light. The galaxy’s powerful gravity amplified and improved Kaiser’s light, creating four distorted images of the quasar.

Dark matter flakes reside in and around the foreground galaxy, along with the quasar line of the Hubble Space Telescope. The appearance of Dark Matter changes the apparent brightness and position of each quasar image distorted by tilting and tilting slightly as it travels from the distant Kasar to Earth, as indicated by the wavy lines in the graph.

Astronomers compared these measurements with an estimate of how the image would look without the effect of dark matter groups. The researchers used these measures to calculate the mass of small concentrations of dark matter.

Dark matter is an invisible substance that forms most of the mass of the universe and forms the scaffold in which galaxies are formed. Quadruple images of a quasar are rare because the background quasar and the foreground galaxy require almost complete alignment.

When looking for dark matter, astronomers must go like a “ghost hunt.” This is because dark matter is an invisible substance that cannot be observed directly. However, it forms most of the mass of the universe and forms the scaffold in which galaxies are formed.

Dark matter is the gravitational “glue” that holds galaxies and galaxy clusters together. Astronomers can detect their presence indirectly to discover how their gravity affects stars and galaxies.

Mysterious matter is not made of the same things that stars, planets and people do. This material is common “barionic” material, which includes electrons, protons and neutrons. However, dark matter may be some type of unknown subatomic particle that contacts weakly with normal matter.

A popular theory holds that dark matter particles do not move very fast, which makes it easier for them to collide with each other. According to this view, the universe has a wide range of dark matter concentrations from small to large.

Astronomers have detected groups of dark matter around large and medium galaxies. Now, using Hubble and a new observation technique, astronomers have discovered that dark matter forms much smaller groups than previously known.

The researchers discovered small concentrations of dark matter in the Hubble data, which show how light is affected by distant quasars when they travel from space. The quasars are the luminous nuclei driven by black holes of very distant galaxies.

Hubble images show that the light from these quasar images is largely distorted and amplified by the gravity of foreground galaxies in an effect called gravitational lens. Astronomers used this lens effect to detect small scales of dark matter. The tweezers are located along the telescope to the quasars, as well as around the foreground lens galaxies.

Using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and a new observation technique, astronomers have discovered that Dark Matter forms much smaller groups than before. This result confirms one of the fundamental predictions of the widely accepted theory of “cold dark matter.”

Each of these snapshots of the Hubble Space Telescope shows a background quasar around the middle nucleus of a broad massive galaxy and four distorted images of its host galaxy. The gravity of the massive foreground galaxy is acting like a magnifying glass by striking the light of the quasar in an effect called gravitational lens.

Caesars are extremely distant cosmic lanterns created by active black holes. Such quadruple images of quasars are rare due to the almost exact alignment between the anterior galaxy and the background quasar.

Astronomers used the gravitational lens effect to detect the smallest groups of dark matter found. The tweezers are located along the telescope to the quasars, as well as around the foreground lens galaxies. The presence of dark matter concentrations changes the apparent brightness and state of each image of quasar distorted.

Astronomers compared these measurements with an estimate of how the image would look without the effect of dark matter groups. The researchers used these measures to calculate the mass of small concentrations of dark matter. 

The researchers discovered small concentrations of dark matter in the Hubble data, which show how light is affected by distant quasars when they travel from space. The quasars are the luminous nuclei driven by black holes of very distant galaxies.

Hubble images show that the light from these quasar images is largely distorted and amplified by the gravity of foreground galaxies in an effect called gravitational lens. Astronomers used this lens effect to detect small scales of dark matter. The tweezers are located along the telescope to the quasars, as well as around the foreground lens galaxies.

Using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and a new observation technique, astronomers have discovered that Dark Matter forms much smaller groups than before. This result confirms one of the fundamental predictions of the widely accepted theory of “cold dark matter.”

Each of these snapshots of the Hubble Space Telescope shows a background quasar around the middle nucleus of a broad massive galaxy and four distorted images of its host galaxy. The gravity of the massive foreground galaxy is acting like a magnifying glass by striking the light of the quasar in an effect called gravitational lens.

Caesars are extremely distant cosmic lanterns created by active black holes. Such quadruple images of quasars are rare due to the almost exact alignment between the anterior galaxy and the background quasar. Astronomers used the gravitational lens effect to detect the smallest groups of dark matter found.

The tweezers are located along the telescope to the quasars, as well as around the foreground lens galaxies. The presence of dark matter concentrations changes the apparent brightness and state of each image of quasar distorted. Astronomers compared these measurements with an estimate of how the image would look without the effect of dark matter groups.

The researchers used these measures to calculate the mass of small concentrations of dark matter. Hubble’s wide-field camera 3 captured the near infrared light of each quasar and dispersed it in the colors of its components for study from spectroscopy. Photos were taken between 2015 and 2018. Credits: NASA, ESA, A. Nierenberg (JPL) and T. Treu (UCLA)

According to this theory, all galaxies are interwoven within clouds of form and dark matter. Dark matter itself consists of slow-moving or “cold” particles, which join together to form structures hundreds of times larger than the mass of the Milky Way galaxy, larger than the height of a commercial aircraft. Do not occur on a scale. (In this context, “cold” refers to the movement of particles).

Hubble’s observations provide new ideas about the nature of dark matter and how it behaves. “We did a very attractive observation test for the cold dark matter model and it passes with great success,” said Tommaso Treau of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), who is a member of the observation team.

Dark matter is an invisible form of matter that forms most of the mass of the universe and forms the scaffold in which galaxies are formed. Although astronomers cannot see dark matter, they can indirectly track their presence to how their gravity affects stars and galaxies.

Smaller dark matter structures looking for embedded stars may be difficult or impossible to detect, since they contain very few stars. While concentrations of dark matter around large and medium galaxies have been detected, very small scales of dark matter have not yet been found.

In the absence of observational evidence for such small-scale tweezers, some researchers have developed alternative theories, including “hot dark matter. This idea suggests that dark matter particles are growing rapidly, they also dissolve rapidly and form small concentrations.

New observations do not support this scenario, finding that Dark Matter is “colder” than it should be in a warmer Dark Matter alternative theory. There is a substance colder than the dark matter we know on a small scale, said Anna Nienberg of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, led by the Hubble Survey.

Astronomers have previously performed other observational tests of Dark Matter Theories, but they provide the strongest evidence so far of the presence of small groups of our cold-freezing material. By combining the latest theoretical predictions, statistical tools and new waste.

There is a substance colder than the dark matter we know on a small scale, said Anna Nienberg of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, led by the Hubble Survey. Astronomers have previously performed other observational tests of Dark Matter Theories.

But they provide the strongest evidence so far of the presence of small groups of our cold-freezing material. By combining the latest theoretical predictions, statistical tools and new waste., We have done it now. Much stronger results were possible than before. “

Hunting for dark matter concentrations without stars has proved a challenge. However, the Hubble research team used a technique in which they were not required to look for the gravitational effects of stars because they were tracers of dark matter.

The team pointed to eight powerful and distant cosmic “streetlights,” called caesars (areas around active black holes that emit massive amounts of light). Astronomers measured how the light emitted by oxygen and neon gas orbits each black hole in the quasar, distorted by the gravity of a massive foreground galaxy, which acts as a magnifying lens.

Using this method, the team exposed the dark matter clamps along the line of binoculars to the quasars, as well as in and around the lens galaxies. The concentration of dark matter found by Hubble is 1/10 000 to 1/100 000 of the mass of the dark matter halo of the Milky Way.

It is likely that many of these small clusters are not even small galaxies and, therefore, would have been impossible to detect using the traditional method of searching for embedded stars.

The eight quasars and galaxies lined up so precisely that the war effect, called the gravitational lens, produces four distorted images of each quasar. The effect is like looking at a funhouse mirror.

Such quadruple images of quasars are rare due to the almost exact alignment between the anterior galaxy and the background quasar. However, researchers needed several images to perform a more detailed analysis.

The presence of dark matter changes the apparent brightness and the state of each image of quasar distorted. Astronomers compared these measurements with what quasar images would look like without the influence of dark matter.

The researchers used the measurements to calculate the mass of small concentrations of dark matter. To analyze the data, the researchers also developed elaborate computer programs and intensive reconstruction techniques.

“Imagine that each of these eight galaxies is a giant magnifying glass,” said UCLA team member Daniel Gilman. “The small flakes of dark matter act like small cracks in the magnifying glass, changing the brightness and position of the four images of the quasar, compared to what you would expect to see if the glass were smooth.”

The researchers used the Hubble 3 wide-field camera to capture the near infrared light of each quasar and spread it in its component colors to study it with spectroscopy. The single emission of background quasars is best seen with infrared light.

The observation of the Hubble allowed us to make these measurements in space in a galaxy system that would not be accessible with the low resolution of the ground telescopes, and the Earth’s atmosphere is opaque to the infrared light that we needed to observe, “The team Simon Bearer told UCLA.

Treu said: It’s amazing that after almost 30 years of operation, Hubble is allowing cutting-edge ideas in fundamental physics and the nature of the universe that we hadn’t even dreamed of when the telescope was launched.

Gravitational lenses were discovered through land surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Dark Energy Survey, which provide the most detailed three-dimensional maps of the universe. The quasars are about 10 billion light years from Earth; Galaxies in the foreground, about 2 billion light years.

The number of small structures detected in the study provides more clues about the nature of dark matter. “The properties of dark matter particles affect how many groups,” Nierenberg explained. “This means that you can learn about the particle physics of dark matter by counting the number of small groups.”

However, the type of particle that forms dark matter remains a mystery. “Currently, there is no direct evidence in the laboratory that there are dark matter particles,” Birr said.

Particle physicists don’t even talk about dark matter if cosmologists don’t say it, based on observations of its effects. When cosmologists talk about dark matter, we ask: ‘This universe. How do you control the presence of., And in what scales? 

Astronomers will be able to keep track of NASA’s future space telescopes, such as the James Webb space telescope and the wide-field infrared recognition telescope (WFIRST), both dark infrared observatories. The web can obtain these measurements efficiently for all known quadruple lens quasars.

The crisp and wide field of vision of WFIRST will help astronomers observe the entire region of space affected by the huge gravitational field of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. This will help researchers discover many of these rare systems.

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This Post Has 45 Comments

  1. Anna Waldherr

    Fascinating. There is still so much we have to learn.

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