These Planets Are Relatively Rare In Our Galaxy, The Milky Way

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Kepler-51 is home to three super-swollen exoplanet: Kepler-51 is a 500 million-year-old G-type star located 2,615 light years away in the constellation Cygnus. New observations from the NASA / ESA Hubble Space Telescope showed that the Kepler-51 houses three of the lowest density exoplanets known to date.

At a density of less than 0.1 g / cm3, the elevation of the atmospheric scale on these planets is 10 times greater than that of a typical hot Jupiter exoplanet. Super puffs are several times larger than Earth, planets larger than Neptune and planets of much lower density.

First discovered by NASA’s Kepler space telescope, these planets are relatively rare in our galaxy, the Milky Way: so far less than 15 have been discovered. “A trio of Kepler-51 has taken planetary disturbances to new levels,” said Dr. Zachary Berta-Thompson is an astronomer in the Department of Astronomy and Planetary Sciences at the University of Colorado, Boulder.

“Their discovery was directly opposite to what we teach in graduate classes.” Also known as KOI-620, Kepler-51 houses three planets the size of Jupiter: Kepler-51B, C and D, with an orbital period of 45, 85 and 130 days. Discovered by Kepler in 2012, these planets are several times larger than Earth’s mass and have a hydrogen / helium atmosphere.

“The three planets had a density of less than 0.1 g / cm3, almost the same as the pink candy bought at any fair,” said Jessica Libby-Roberts, an astrologer and graduate student in the Department of Planetary Sciences. University of Colorado, Boulder.

“We knew they were low density. But when you photograph a cotton candy ball in the form of Jupiter, it is really low density. ” This representation shows three massive planets orbiting Kepler-51 compared to some planets in our solar system.

Dr. Berta-Thompson, Libby-Roberts and colleagues saw two transits of the Kepler-51, B with the Hubble 3 wide-field camera. The researchers found no chemical signs in the spectra of both planets. “It was completely unexpected. We had planned to see large water absorption facilities, but they weren’t there. They forced us out,” Libby-Roberts said.

“However, unlike Earth’s water clouds, clouds on these planets can be formed by salt crystals or photochemical rewards, such as those found on Saturn’s largest moon, Titan.” These clouds provide scientists with an idea of how Kepler-51, B and D compare to other low mass and gas rich exoplanets.

“By comparing the flat spectra of the overpopulations with the spectra of other planets, we could support the hypothesis that the formation of clouds / mists is associated with the temperature of the planet: the colder a planet is, the deeper it becomes”, said.

“The low density of these planets is the result of the early age of the system, just 500 million years older than our Sun of 4.6 million years.” “The models suggest that these planets formed outside the star’s snow line,” areas of possible orbits where frozen matter can escape. After this, the planets went inward. “

The authors also found that Kepler-51B, C and D flow at high speed. He calculated that if this trend continued, the planets could be substantially reduced in the next billion years, increasing their frustration. Finally, they can be transmitted as a common class of exoplanets called ‘mini-neptunes‘.

“People are really struggling to discover why this system is so different from everyone else. We are trying to show, in fact, that it looks like these other systems, ”said Libby-Roberts. Dr. Berta-Thompson said: “A good fact of their rarity is that we are seeing them at a time of their evolution, where we rarely have the opportunity to see planets.” The team article will be published in the Astronomical Journal.

Super-puffs: new types of exoplanets seen by hubble have the density of cotton candy. This new class of exoplanets has the lowest density of any planet discovered outside of our solar system. When you hear “super puffs,” it’s more like thinking of cheetos, breakfast cereals, or whatever else is super puffy.

But a planet in space would not be an unexpected assumption. Okay, we’ll just have to figure out how to make peace with doing it anyway (especially if you’re a space cushion), because “super-puff” is now a newly-discovered category of a unique and rare cotton candy category as well. . Young exoplanets with a density of.

This is the first in the field of astrophysics, let alone exoplanets, simply “there is nothing [like them] that exists in our solar system.” Data from NASA-ESA’s Hubble Space Telescope pointed to the heterogeneous chemistry of two of those super-bloated planets, found in the Kepler 51 system, some 2,400 light-years away from Earth.

Consisting of not two but three superpopulations orbiting a young star, the system was discovered in 2012 by NASA’s Kepler telescope. It was only in 2014 that the densities of these planets were estimated, and what they found was a huge drunken surprise.

Super-Puffs: The new class of exoplanets observed by Hubble has a density of cotton candy. An artist’s rendering of the super-bloated exoplanets is compared to cotton candy in appearance as a pedicle. Recent Hubble observations shed some light on the mass and size of these worlds, on the basis of which several independent research groups have confirmed their “bloated” disposition.

To an observer, these planets may look big and heavy like Jupiter, but the reality is that these planets are very, very light (about a hundred times lighter) in mass. How and why its atmospheres make the balloon remains a mystery, but the feature makes Super-Puffs the primary target for atmospheric investigations.

The research team went looking for evidence of components: water, especially in the atmospheres of the two planets (Kepler-51B and Kepler 51D). Most exoplanets, including the overpopulations in question, are studied using a method called transduction photometry, in which astronomers search for starlight to detect the intensity of dives as the exoplanet passes by.

A drop in light intensity during this “transit” can reveal a lot of information about the size and structure of the exoplanet. The study was published in The Astronomical Journal. The three pleural planets in the Kepler 51 system are comparable to some of our acquaintances. Image: NASA / ESA

Researchers have testified that there are light gases (hydrogen and helium, for example), which gives the bloated world something, if not some of its strange characteristics. Methane is also in the mix, creating a layer of gas that obscures the view through the atmosphere when viewed with powerful telescopes.

It is similar to Saturn’s moon Titan, which has a dense atmosphere and a fog through which it is impossible to see. “They are very strange,” said Jessica Libby-Roberts, a graduate student in astrophysics at the University of Colorado Boulder. “She sent us off course to explain what might happen here … We were expecting to find water, but we couldn’t see the signature of any molecule.”

However, the system is young, compared to our solar system (4.5 billion years old), which is only 500 million years old, which is considered quite young. It may be too early to compare or speculate on the curious trio of super-puffs. But we can certainly imagine time, which can be like looking and walking in real super-bloat.

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