Life can happen in the inflationary universe, in an article published in the Journal of Scientific Reports. In an article published in the Journal of Scientific Reports.
And Professor Tomonori Totani of the University of Tokyo observed how the basic components of life can form spontaneously in a process known as abiogenesis.
We can be the only intelligent life in the universe of observation. NASA image. Despite the recent rapid development of biology, chemistry.
The origins of life through Earth Science and Astronomy, Abooginness, remain a great mystery in science. A key feature of life is the information stored in DNA and RNA and how that information was revealed by abiotic processes is an important issue.
We can be the only intelligent life in the observable universe. Professor Totani said: As we know that there is only life on Earth, studies on the origin of life are limited to the specific conditions we find here.
Therefore, most research in this area analyzes the most basic components for all known living things: RNA. It is a much simpler and more essential molecule than the best known DNA that defines how we bind.
But RNA is even more complex than orders of magnitude, because one type of chemist is floating in space or clinging to the face of a lifeless planet.
RNA is a polymer, which means that it is formed by chemical chains, in this case known as nucleotides. Given sufficient time, nucleotides can spontaneously bind to RNA due to chemical conditions.
The researchers are unaware of how a RNA polymerase has for a long time a self-replicating activity (RNA polymerase ribozyme) that arose from prebiotic conditions and then began to develop.
RNA molecules of less than 25 nucleotides do not show a specific function. But there is a reasonable expectation of finding a replicative ribozyme longer than 40-60 nucleotides.
RNA polymerase ribozyme has a length of 100 nucleotides so far in laboratory experiments. Current estimates suggest that the magic of 40 to 100 nucleotides in space space should not have been possible.
Which we consider an observable universe, said Professor Totani. However, the universe is more observable than it is. In contemporary cosmology.
It is accepted that the universe is experiencing a period of rapid inflation that produces a vast field of expansion beyond the horizon and that we can observe directly.
Factoring this excess into a model of pathogenesis increases the likelihood of life occurring.
Actually, there are about 1022 stars in the observable universe. Statistically, such an amount of matter should only be able to produce approximately 20 nucleotide RNA. But thanks to rapid inflation.
The Universe can contain more than 10100 stars.
And if this is the case, more complex and life-sustaining RNA frameworks are more than just potential, they are virtually inevitable. Like many in this field of research, I am inspired by curiosity and big questions, said Professor Totani.
Combining my recent research on RNA chemistry with my long history of cosmology, I realize that the universe has moved from an inorganic state to an organic form.
This is an exciting thought and I hope that research can be based on this to discover the origins of life.
The emergence of life in a composite universe
The abiotic emergence of computational information stored as RNA is a major unsolved problem related to the origin of life. Polymers of more than 40 to 100 nucleotides are required to expect self-replicating activity.
But the formation of this long polymer with the correct nucleotide sequence by random reactions seems statistically impossible. However, our universe, created by a single probability event, probably contains more than 10,100 Sun-like stars.
If life can emerge at least once in such a large quantity, this is not contrary to our observations of life in Earth, despite the fact that the expected number of aristocratic events is carelessly small within an observable universe that includes 1022 stars.
Here, a quantitative relationship emerges between the minimum length of RNA required to be an organic biological polymer and the size of the universe to expect the formation of such a long and active RNA by the random addition of monomers.
It has then been shown that an active RNA can originate somewhere in an alien universe, providing a solution to the problem of abiotic polymers. On the other hand, for a probability of abiotism close to unity on a terrestrial planet.
The sheet should be less than 20 nucleotides, but self-replication activity is not expected for RNAs this low. Therefore, if supernatural organisms from an original organism living on Earth are discovered in the future.
It would be an unknown mechanism that would serve to polymerize nucleotides much faster than random statistical procedures. Despite the recent rapid development of biology, chemistry.
Earth science and astronomy, the origin of life (abiogenesis) remains a great mystery in science 1-5. A key feature of life is the information stored in DNA / RNA, and how abiotic processes reveal that information is an important issue.
Hypothesis 6-8 of the RNA world RNA marks an early era in which RNA played both a genetic and a catalytic role before reaching the world of DNA proteins.
This is widely accepted due to strong supporting evidence, including the catalytic activities of RNA.
Which is particularly important for its central role in ribosomes. However, a more fundamental and unsolved problem is that the RNA polymer is long enough for self-replicating RNA polymerase activity.
And RNA replicating ribozyme that arose from prebiotic conditions and then initiated Darwin’s development. The greatest amount is the minimum length of RNA required to show self-replication ability.
RNA molecules of less than 25 nucleotides (NT) do not show specific function, but 40-60 nt is a reasonable expectation of long-acting replicative ribozyme longer than 8.9.
The ribozyme of RNA polymerase produced by in vitro experiments is now more than 100 nt10-12 in length. Also, the formation of a single long strand may not be suicidal to initiate an advocacy event.
Instead, a pair of identical strands may be required if one serves as a replicative ribozyme and the other as a template.
The polymerization of RNA in water is a process of thermodynamic decomposition and therefore requires the activation of reactive monomers. Non-enzymatic reactions of the addition of active monomers.
For example imidazole activated ribonucleotides to an RNA oligomer have been experimentally studied 1,4,13. Reactions at inorganic catalytic sites (such as the surface of minerals such as montmorolite clay) can be particularly efficient14,15.
Some experiments led to a production of 40 μm of RNA16,17. Which may be long enough for some biological activities. However, these results have not been reproducible, and in recent experiments only small oligomers up to 10 µm were produced.
Which are rapidly decreasing in abundance with oligomer lengths 13,18-20. This trend is also consistent with the theoretical expectation of the random addition of monomers (see below).
An experimental dicolase is that aggregates can easily be mistaken for polymers, depending on detection methods 13,21. It has been hypothesized theoretically that oligomer terminal obligation hierarchies can produce more than 22.
But there is no experimental or quantitative demonstration of this, starting with realistic prebiotic conditions. A report of experimental long-term polymer production (> 120 nt) is found in 1Depbox 23 Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo.