More than a year after NASA‘s Mars Insight landing module sank into the ‘Homestead Hollow’, a sandy impact crater in a flat and smooth lava extension called Elysium planitia, Mars is now serving its meteorological secrets: Marsquake, the swirls of ‘dust demons’ and the constant low rumor of the infrasound. The findings are detailed in a set of six articles published in the journal Nature Geoscience and the journal Nature Communications.
InSight is the first mission dedicated to looking deeply below the Martian surface. His scientific tools include a seismic instrument to detect earthquakes, sensors to measure wind and air pressure, a magnetometer and a heat flow probe designed to measure the temperature of the planet.
Although Insight’s team continues to work on Martine’s surface research, ultrasensitive seismometers, called Seismic Experiments for Interior Structures (SIX), have led scientists to ‘hear’ many trembling events ranging from hundreds to thousands. ‘Enabled. Miles away
Seismic waves are influenced by the materials they pass through, which gives scientists a way to study the structure of the internal structure of the planet. Mars can help the team better understand how all rocky planets, including Earth, formed first.
Tidal waves: Mars trembles more often but also lighter than expected. SIX has found more than 450 seismic signals to date, most of which are probably earthquakes (as opposed to data noise created by environmental factors, such as wind).
The largest earthquake had a magnitude of approximately 4.0, not large enough to travel under the crust in the lower mantle and the planet’s core.
Scientists are ready for the first one: months after Insight landed in November 2018, when they recorded the first seismic event.
At the end of 2019, SIX discovered two seismic signals later in the day, suggesting that Insight landed at a particularly quiet time. Scientists still have fingers crossed by the still big one.
Mars does not have tectonic plates like Earth, but it has active volcanic zones that can cause rumbles. A couple of earthquakes were strongly associated with an area, Cerberus fossae, where scientists see rocks that could have shaken the rocks.
The old floods recorded canals approximately 1,300 km (800 miles) long. Lava flows and in the last 10 million years in the geological period it blinked in those channels.
Some of these young lava flows suggest fractures due to earthquakes about 2 million years ago.
Planetary geologist at NASA‘s Jet Propulsion Laboratory Dr. Matt Golombek said: “This is the youngest tectonic feature on the planet.”
“The fact that we do not see evidence of tremors in this area is not surprising, but it is very good.”
Magnetic signal: Billions of years ago, Mars had a magnetic field. It no longer exists, but it repels ghosts, magnetizing ancient rocks that are now between 61 meters (200 feet) several kilometers underground. The Insight is equipped with a magnetometer on the surface of Mars to detect magnetic signals.
Magnetometers have found that the signals in Homestead Hollow are 10 times stronger than those predicted based on data from spacecraft studying that region. The measure of these orbiters has an average of more than one hundred miles, while the measure of perception is more local.
Planetary Scientist at the University of British Columbia and Dr. de Planetas. Catherine Johnson said: “Because most of the surface rocks instead of the view are magnetically marked by the east of the planet, this magnetism must have come from ancient rocks.” Science Institute
We are combining this data with what we know about seismology and geology to understand the magnetic layers below the information. How strong or deep should they be so that we can explore this area?
In addition, scientists suggest how these signals change over time. Measurements vary by day and night; They also pulse around midnight. Theories are still being formed due to such changes, but one possibility is that they are related to the solar wind that interacts with the martial atmosphere.
The truncated view of Mars shows the Insight landing module that studies seismic activity. Image by JT Keane / Nature Geoscience.
Martian winds: InSight continuously measures wind speed, wind direction and pressure, providing greater speed than previously launched missions.
The spacecraft’s weather sensors have detected thousands of eddies that pass, which are called dust demons when sand is taken and is visible.
Atmospheric scientist at the Sorbonne University, Dr. “We have more vortices this season than any other place that carries weather sensors,” said Ayemarie Spiga.
Despite all this activity and constant images, Insight cameras still have dust phenomena. But SIX can bring these vortices to the surface like a giant vacuum.
“Whirlwind’s subsoil is perfect for seismic exploration,” SEIS chief researcher Dr. Said Philippe Loganne, a researcher at the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP).
This X-band radius, also known as an internal structure and rotation experiment (RIES), can determine whether a planet’s core is solid or liquid. A solid core will cause Mars to wobble less than a liquid.