Neanderthals were eligible to make lanyard. Archaeologists working at the Neanderthals site of Abri du Maras in France have discovered a 46,000-year-old piece of cable, the earliest known direct evidence of fiber technology. Neanderthals are often considered less technologically advanced than modern humans. Archaeologists generally only find stone remains or stone tools at the Neanderthal sites. Usually destructive content is missing, including most elements of content culture.
Individual twisted fibers in stone tools from the Abri du Maras site led to the hypothesis of Neanderthal rope production in the past, but conclusive evidence was lacking. “The bone fragments of the Abree du Maras are the earliest direct evidence of fiber technology,” said Bruce Hardy, a professor at Kenon College, and his colleagues.
“Their production reflects a detailed ecological understanding of trees and how to transform them into completely different functional substances.” The cable piece is approximately 6.2mm long and 0.5mm wide. It consists of three interwoven bundle fibers and is found to have a 6cm long flake tool.
The researchers speculate that the cable was wrapped around the instrument as a handle or part of a net or bag containing the instrument. “The cable is not necessarily related to the use of the equipment. Its presence on the bottom surface of the layer during excavation indicates that it was deposited before or at the same time as the layer,” he said.
A cape with a piece of umbilical cord from the site of Abri du Maras, France. Scientists placed the umbilical cord between 41,000 and 52,000 years ago. Using spectroscopy and microscopy, they identified that the cord probably originated from fibers taken from the inner bark of a non-flowering coniferous tree.
“From Abri du Maras, the umbilical cord contains fibers made from the inner cortex of the gymnosperm, which are potentially conical,” he explained. The fibrous layer of the inner cortex is called the bust and eventually hardens to form the cortex. To create twine, Neanderthals had extensive knowledge of the growth and climate of these trees.
The cane fibers are easier to separate from the underlying wood in the bark and in early spring when the sap begins to rise. The fibers increase in size and thickness as they grow. “The best time to harvest the fiber from the bust would be from early spring to early summer.
Once the bark is removed from the tree, it may help to separate the fibers from the bark. Furthermore, soaking the fibers with water aids in their separation can maintain and soften and improve the quality of the mesh.
“The cane must be strung apart and can be rolled up into string. In this case, the fibers of the three groups were separated and rotated clockwise. Once folded, the threads were rotated counterclockwise (Z-turn) to form a bead. “
Prior to this discovery, the earliest discovered fiber fragments at the Ohalo II site in Israel date back to approximately 19,000 years ago. The new study’s findings suggest that fiber technology is very old and that Neanderthal’s cognitive abilities may be more similar to those of modern humans than before.
“While it is clear that the Abri du Maras cable demonstrates the ability to make Neanderthal cordage, it suggests much larger fiber technology,” the authors said. “Once the production of a twisted flat cable is complete, it is possible to make bags, mats, nets, clothing, baskets, structures, brands, and even boats.”
“Fiber technology would have been an important part of everyday life and would affect seasonal programming and dynamics,” he said. Furthermore, string production involves a cognitive understanding of arithmetic and context-sensitive working memory. “Given the continuing revelations of Neanderthal art and technology.
It is difficult to see how we could view Neanderthal as more than the cognitive equivalent of modern humans.” Neanderthal may have used a string: NPR. Small pieces of twisted plant fibers found in an ancient stone tool suggest that Neanderthals were capable of making and using sophisticated ropes such as ropes and twine.
Twisted fiber cables are so ubiquitous today that they are easy to transport. But it is an important survival technique that can be used to make everything from clothing to bags to shelters. This piece from the prehistoric series described in the Scientific Reports newspaper was placed in a flint device.
Which is between 41,000 and 52,000 years old. It came from a cave-shaped refuge in southern France, once inhabited by Neanderthals. The discovery adds to mounting evidence that our closest missing human relatives were not as dumb as scientists had long believed.
“They are that kind of ultimate ‘other’, this creature that is very similar to us, but is too stupid to live anyway,” said paleontologist Bruce Hardy of Kenyon College, Ohio. He explains that Neanderthals were so smart that they lasted hundreds of thousands of years before disappearing some 40,000 years ago.
But their lives have been difficult to understand because archaeologists generally find only human remains, animal bones, and stone tools. “Almost everything we want to see is gone,” Hardy said. “And so we must try to find ways to make the most of the equipment we have.”
On the surfaces of stone tools, they point out, it is sometimes possible to find residues of material that would otherwise decompose. How this protection occurs is not well understood. But if a device is placed on top of other material, for example, it can create a type of capsule or microenvironment that can keep things stable.
Starch grains, plant trunks, hair, feathers – things that can survive, Hardy said. He was examining a stone instrument when he noticed white spots that he then examined under a microscope. “It was a mass of twisted fibers,” he said. “It was obvious that we had something as soon as I saw it.”
Further work with the most powerful microscope has shown what a classical string-making structure looks like. “What we found is a small piece of three-p cable,” Hardy said, noting that it is made from the inner bark of some type of evergreen.
“There are three bundles of fibers that twist counter-clockwise, then these bundles are twisted once in another direction, to form a string or cord around each other,” he said. Previously, the oldest known piece of cable was at a site in Israel, about 19,000 years ago. Scientists left footprints on the ground that looked like woven fibers 27,000 years ago.
Marie-Helen Moncel of the National Museum of Natural History in Paris, part of the research team working on this new discovery, said it was impossible for the twisted nature found in the instrument to be spontaneously revealed by nature. – It was intentionally built.
And by looking at where the artifact was found and other bones and equipment were found at the site, he said, it’s clear that it is related to Neanderthals, not physically to modern humans who lived in Europe some 40,000 years ago. They were appearing on.
John Shia, a paleontologist at Stony Brook University in New York, is not so sure. The idea that this rope is necessarily made by Neanderthal is dubious, he said, although the Neanderthal remains were found nearby.
You should always keep an open mind. It simply means that the Neanderthals were there. This does not exclude the possibility that humans roamed the same part of the world at the same time. Social distance works; Why does the virus occur in the second week?
However, he said: “We have long suspected that humans and previous Neanderthals had some sort of rope, a means of tying one thing to another. This, as far as I know, is the first definitive evidence. There is one.” The Shiites said the rope was probably in use half a million years ago.
He said that some extremely old stone tools are designed to fit the handle, and that these tools will quickly detach from a handle without glue or string to hold it firmly in place. Almost any herb is very easy to use for rope, Shia said, you can make a simple rope in minutes.
However, the production of high-quality ropes and ropes requires a certain amount of information. And he said there is no reason to think that Neanderthal could not do it. “There is not a single piece, and I mean not even the slightest trace of evidence,” he said, “that Neanderthal lacked intelligence compared to humans.”
The findings were published in the journal Scientific Reports.
Researcher genome sequence of Neanderthal woman from Chagyrskaya cave. An international team of researchers has sequenced and analyzed the genome of an 80,000-year-old Neanderthal woman from Chererskaya Cave, located in the Altai Mountains of Siberia. The Neanderthal genus provides information on the structure and history of the population and allows the identification of unique genomic characteristics of these human cousins.
Group of Neanderthals in a cave. Neanderthals and Denisovans are the closest evolutionary relatives of modern humans. Analysis of its genome revealed that it genetically contributed to people outside of sub-Saharan Africa. However, only two Neanderthals and a Denisovan genome have been sequenced at high quality.
One of these Neanderthal genomes was from a person (Windija 33) found in the Windija cave in Croatia, while the other Neanderthal genome (Denisova 5 or Neanderthal from Altai) and the Denisovan genome (Denisova 3) come from samples. discovered in Denisova’s cave. . Altai Mountains
In new research, the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and colleagues, Dr. Fabrizio Muffesoni unearthed the genome in 2011 from a Neanderthal phalanx (Cheergrassa 8) in the Chyreskaya cave, located about 100 km from Denisova cave .
The researchers discovered that Chirangskaya 8 lived 80,000 years ago, Denisova 5 about 30,000 years after Neanderthal, and Windija 33 30,000 years before Neanderthal. They also discovered that Cheragraskaya Neanderthal was a woman and that she was more related to Vinja 33 and other Neanderthals in western Eurasia who lived in the Altai Mountains before Denisova 5.
“Chagyrskaya 8 is related to the Neanderthal population that migrated sometime between 120,000 and 80,000 years ago,” he said. “Interestingly, the artifacts found in the Churgreskaya Cave show similarities in the artifact collection in Central and Eastern Europe, suggesting that Neanderthal populations arriving in Siberia from western Eurasia are likely to bring their material culture with them.”
“Some of these incoming Neanderthals confronted the local Denisova population shown by Denisova 11, who had a Denisovan father and a Neanderthal mother who belonged to the population where Churgreskaya 8 lived.”
By genome variation, the authors hypothesized that Cheergrassa 8 and other Siberian Neanderthals lived in relatively isolated populations of less than 60 individuals. In contrast, a Neanderthal from Europe, a Denisovan from the Altai Mountains and ancient modern humans live in large populations.
When the team analyzed the Charagaskaya 8 genome along with two pre-sequenced Neanderthal genomes, they found that the genes expressed in a part of the brain called the striatum were particularly altered, suggesting that the striatum is unique to Neanderthal. .
“We found that genes expressed in the striatum during adolescence showed greater changes that alter the resulting amino acids than in other areas of the brain,” said Dr. Mafsoni.
“The results suggest that the striatum, a part of the brain that coordinates various aspects of cognition, including planning, decision-making, motivation, and perception of reward, may have played a unique role in Neanderthal.”
The findings were published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
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