Serrated beak discovered, oldest named bird species in the world

62-million-year-old bird with serrated beak discovered. The newly-discovered Protodontopteryx ruthae is one of the oldest named bird species (serrated beak) in the world and comes with a set of unusual chompers. Bony toothed seabird lived in New Zealand, 62 Million Years Ago, Paleontologists have found the remains of a bony toothed seabird (serrated beak).

Serrated Beak

Paleontologists have found the remains of a pelgornitid bird that lived in New Zealand 62 million years ago (early Paleocene age). Nicknamed Protodontoproteix ruthe, it belongs to the ancient seabird Pelagornithidae, an ancient family of bony toothed seabirds (serrated beak). Previously it was known that these seabirds dated from the fossil sites of the Paleocene to the Pliocene.

Some species reached wings of up to 6.4 m (21 feet). Protodontopteryx is the oldest but youngest member of the Ruthe family. It was only the size of an average Goole and, like other pelgornitids, had bony and tooth-like projections on the edge of its beak. A partial skeleton of Protodontopteryx ruthae was found on the Vepara Greensand fossil site in 2018 by amateur paleontologist Leah Love.

The age of fossil bones suggests that palagornites develop in the southern hemisphere, said the curator of the Canterbury Museum and lead author of an article published in the journal Papers in Paleontology. While this bird was relatively small, the impact of its discovery is extremely important in our understanding of this family. Until we found this skeleton. All really old pelagornites were found in the northern hemisphere.

Serrated bird beak

So everyone thought they had evolved there. Serrated beak bony toothed seabird lived in New Zealand. New Zealand was a very different place when protodontoproteins were in heaven. It had a tropical climate, the sea temperature was around 25 ° C (77 ° F), so we had coral and giant turtles. Researchers from the Senckenberg Research Institute and the Natural History Museum, Drs. Gerald Mayer said: The discovery of Protodontoprotex Ruth was really surprising and unexpected.

The fossil is not only one of the most complete specimens of birds (serrated beak) with pseudo legs, but also shows many unexpected skeletal features that contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of these cryptic birds. The Protodontopteryx ruthae skeleton suggests that it was less suitable for long growing distances and probably covered much shorter distances than the last paleorganites.

Bird species

Its short and wide pseudotet was probably designed for fishing. Later species had needle-shaped pseudoteth, possibly used to capture prey with a soft body like squid. Curator at the Canterbury Museum, Drs. Vanessa de Pietri said: Because Protodontoprotex Ruth was less adapted to continuously grow than other known paleorganites, we can now say that the pseudoteth evolved.


Bony Toothed Seabird lived in New Zealand 62 million years ago. Paleontology… Paleontologists have found the remains of a pelgornitid bird that lived in New Zealand 62 million years ago (early Paleocene age). Nicknamed Protodontoproteix ruthe, it belongs to the ancient seabird Pelagornithidae, an ancient family of bony-tooth birds.

Previously it was known that these seabirds dated from the fossil sites of the Paleocene to the Pliocene, and some species reached wings of up to 6.4 m (21 feet). Protodontopteryx is the oldest but youngest member of the Ruthe family. It was only the size of an average Goole and, like other pelgornitids, had bony and tooth-like projections on the edge of its beak.


A partial skeleton of Protodontopteryx ruthae was found on the Vepara Greensand fossil site in 2018 by amateur paleontologist Leah Love. The age of fossil bones suggests that palagornites develop in the southern hemisphere, said the curator of the Canterbury Museum and lead author of an article published in the journal Papers in Paleontology.

While this bird was relatively small, the impact of its discovery is extremely important in our understanding of this family. Until we found this skeleton, all really old pelagornites were found in the northern hemisphere, so everyone thought they had evolved there. New Zealand was a very different place when protodontoproteins were in heaven.

Natural History Museum

It had a tropical climate, the sea temperature was around 25 ° C (77 ° F), so we had coral and giant turtles. Researchers from the Senckenberg Research institute and the Natural History Museum, Drs. Gerald Mayer said: The discovery of Protodontoprotex Ruth was really surprising and unexpected.

The fossil is not only one of the most complete specimens of birds with pseudo legs but also shows many unexpected skeletal features that contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of these cryptic birds.

The Protodontopteryx ruthae skeleton suggests that it was less suitable for long growing distances and probably covered much shorter distances than the last paleorganites. Its short and wide pseudotet was probably designed for fishing. Later species had needle-shaped pseudoteth, possibly used to capture prey with a soft body like squid.

Evolutionary History

Curator at the Canterbury Museum, Drs. Vanessa de Pietri said: Because Protodontoprotex Ruth was less adapted to continuously grow than other known paleorganites, we can now say that the pseudoteth evolved. The oldest, smallest and most phylogenetically most basal pelgornito of the early Paleocene of New Zealand sheds light on the evolutionary history of the largest flying birds.

People around the world have advocated for a healthy environment. From beach cleaning to large-scale plantations and marches, people, communities and governments stand shoulder to shoulder for our planet. This year, we cannot go to beaches, forests and roads. We should stay home, keep our distance, and virtually celebrate World Environment Day.

Global Epidemic

This is because we all stand in solidarity with those suffering from the global epidemic. We need to protect the sick, poor and vulnerable from the worst outbreaks of this disease. In particular, our thoughts are with the US, where the epidemic is now hitting hard. I pay tribute to Colombia. 

The host nation of this year’s World Environment Day, for organizing the event, and to the thousands of advocates who have honored this day with their own virtual events during these difficult times. While these online ceremonies are a tribute to human commitment and ingenuity.

The fact that we have to do it this way means that there is something very wrong with Earth’s human leadership. This virus is not bad luck, or a one-time event that no one can see. This is a completely predictable result of the destruction of humanity’s nature, one that will suffer greatly if not restrained.

We can tell the story of the loss that our species has spoiled with a few facts. Humanity has replaced 75 percent of Earth’s ice-free surface. Since 1990, 420 million hectares of forests, three times the size of South Africa, have been lost. Almost a million species face extinction, while the illegal wildlife trade is the fourth largest illegal trade crime in the world.

Ecosystems and Biodiversity

COVID-19, which was transmitted from animals to humans, is a direct warning that nature cannot take anything else. COVID-19 is zoonotic, a type of disease that is communicated between animals and humans. We are faced with this on a large scale because the expansion of humanity into wild places and the exploitation of species puts people in close contact with wildlife.

COVID-19 may be one of the worst, but it is not the first. Origin Ebola, SARS, the Zika virus, and bird flu are transmitted from animals to people, often due to human invasion of nature. But zoonotic diseases are not the only warning signs that health, peace, and prosperity are threatened by the decline of nature.

As ecosystems and biodiversity reach cities, agriculture, infrastructure, climate change and pollution, nature’s ability to provide food, oxygen, clean water, and regulates the climate. It directly affects human health and wealth. Meanwhile, the climate emergency has not disappeared. CO2 levels in the atmosphere reached an all-time high in early May in April.

World Meteorological Organization

The world meteorological organization said temperatures rose 1.1 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. We are seeing the results of wildfires, acidic oceans and grasshopper invasions, which could have driven millions of East Africans to starvation and while greenhouse gas emissions may decline this year due to the closures, we should not celebrate.

We have only slightly reduced the tap. The tub is still filling up. This means that, as Joseph Stieglitz and other editors recently stated, we will emerge from the pan of COVID in a climate fire. Therefore, blocking is not a ray of light for the environment. However, it has shown that nature can still flourish, if we give it a chance.

We saw clear air pollution and nature lurking, from penguins roaming the streets of Cape Town to bouncing kangaroos in Adelaide. It gives us an idea of the best our life can be if we live with nature. But we have to build it in a lasting way. Now is not the time to set aside environmental laws and regulations in the name of recovery, as we have seen in some places.


We must strengthen environmental protection for better construction again. We have the opportunity to do just that. Governments have already invested trillions of dollars to stabilize our economies and protect the most vulnerable. They will invest billions to reactivate our economies.

These funds should be linked to pro-nature development in line with the sustainable development goals. The Paris Agreement and the next Global Framework on Biological Diversity. These agreements create the only viable global roadmap to protect the natural world that sustains us and lifts billions of people out of poverty.

This means investments and policies that focus on investing in “nature’s infrastructure” for climate regulation: our wetlands, forests, mangroves and more. Keeping wild places wild, preventing deforestation and restoring degraded lands to protect biodiversity, promoting food production, and storing carbon.

Make Agricultural Biodiversity Positive

Integrate natural infrastructure with built-in infrastructure to mitigate climate impacts and restore biodiversity. Support sustainable production and consumption to conserve the planet’s resources. End fossil fuel subsidies and make renewable energy a future. Retirement of our infrastructure built to be more energy efficient. Invest in the expansion of public transport and bicycle lanes.

These are all smart investments. COVID-19 has killed hundreds of thousands of people and shrunk the global economy by trillions of dollars. Climate change, pollution and biodiversity carry long and lasting prices. But if we make the right investment. We avoid future losses, we improve everyone’s life.

COVID-19 has signaled to the House that addressing inequality is the most important part of humanity’s unfinished business. The World Bank estimates that COVID-19 is expected to cause the first increase in global poverty since 1998. We cannot delay environmental action, because it is the poorest and most vulnerable who will suffer the most.

Time for Nature

That’s why we call it nature time. If one needs to be calmer, it may be helpful to discover some numbers that reflect what nature already gives us, and how much more it can give if we treat it with respect. About half of the world’s GDP depends on nature. Our oceans and forests raise billions of people and provide green jobs.

86 million green jobs in forests alone. Four billion people depend mainly on natural medicines. Natural climate solutions, such as afforestation and the use of vegetation to cool our cities and buildings, could provide almost a third of the emission reductions necessary to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement.

Healthy Environment

Nature is even more important in Colombia and the Latin American region in general, home to the Amazon and more. The 6 countries in the region are considered mega-devours: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. The economic value of the contribution of terrestrial nature to people in the US is estimated at US $ 24.3 trillion per year.

The world’s leading biodiversity agency, IPBES, estimates that lowland restoration in Latin America and the Caribbean could generate economic benefits worth $ 23 billion over the next 50 years. These benefits are obvious and present a danger. But Colombia and other nations know it. They are acting. Colombia adopted national strategies on circular economy, power dynamics and low carbon development.

The National Council to Combat Deforestation and other environmental crimes established in 2019 led to a reduction of almost 50 percent in some hotspots of deforestation during the last quarter of 2019. At the World Economic Forum in January, President Duque announced Colombia’s goal of planting 180 million trees by August 2022.

Human Health and Peace

In Latin America and the Caribbean, 24 percent of the land is designated as protected, in contrast to the world average of 15.2 percent but we all have a lot to do, including my organization. All of UNEP is capable of creating a healthy natural world and that will support human health, peace and prosperity for generations to come, when UNEP publishes science to help governments design and implement the right policies.

When UNEP provides technical advice on topics as diverse as ecosystem fragmentation, circularity and food waste, it is by nature. When UNEP works through its network of global multilateral agreements. The glue that binds the international community together in environmental action is by nature. When UNEP works with the private sector to encourage banks, companies and investors to invest in the direction of sustainability, it is by nature.

Consumption and Production

When UNEP builds partnerships, coalitions and governments in the United Nations system to accelerate action on climate change, sustainable consumption and production, biodiversity loss and pollution, it is up to nature. Everything is in the UNEP alliance. This is because this world is too big to deal with environmental problems that challenge our species and is interconnected for anyone.

Isolationism and short-termism will not help anyone in the long run. Countries cannot close their borders to climate change or loss of biodiversity. The stronger our planet’s life support system, the better human health and wealth. It is, without a doubt, the moment of nature. How much do we really need to promote goodness in the “time of nature”.

What is Nature

We are often asked “are you natural?” Or “Can you call your natural products!” The answer is “it depends” because the word “natural” is complex. Different people judge the natural using different criteria and the law varies by product and country, and sometimes there is no law. The purpose of this section is to make some observations that are worth reflecting on.

There are things that are completely “natural”: a leopard, alpana, smallpox in the wild. Smartphones, bicycles and contact lenses are completely artificial. There are many things that use natural processes that would not exist without the intervention of humans: wheat, wine and bread. “Natural” is often used as a metaphor for good and good.

However, Lyme disease, malaria and Zika are natural. A bicycle is completely artificial, but one of the most permanent forms of transport. Each country has a different standard for “natural.” The taste and aroma are regulated differently from sweetness and supplements. Regulations differ between Europe, America, Asia, etc.

Parks, Forests and Beaches

For example, the European Union has a law that defines how food can be described as “natural” (EC 1334/2008). While the FDA does not. Exactly how much do we need to promote goodness in the “time of nature”! Spending time in nature can promote general well-being, but how much exposure do we need! A new study concludes that 2 hours per week are enough to reap the benefits.

Although important questions remain. Being in rural areas promotes well-being, but how much nature do we need? In western society, as general interactions with nature gradually decrease, scientists are exploring whether reintegration into parks, forests and beaches can benefit our overall health and well-being.

Researchers have conducted a series of studies, of varying quality, that have investigated the role of human interaction with nature in general health. For example, one study concluded that living in areas with more trees increases a person’s perception of physical and mental health and reduces the risk of cardiometabolic conditions.

A 2016 review concluded that “living in areas with large amounts of green spaces reduces mortality”, mainly [heart disease]. Despite the slow accumulation of evidence on the benefits of visiting green spaces, no one has correctly calculated whether it is necessary to spend on nature to obtain the benefits.

Natural Environment Survey

The authors of the new study, from the Exeter School of Medicine in the United Kingdom and the University of Uppsala in Sweden, “aimed to better understand the relationship and  between time spent on nature per week and better health and subjective health”. He recently published his findings in the Scientific Reports.

For the investigation, the team took data from the Commitment Monitor with the Natural Environment Survey, including a representative sample of the American public. The researchers collected data for this survey by conducting face-to-face interviews in the participants’ homes. He used a sample of 20,264 people and asked him several questions, two of which were:

How is your overall health and in general, how satisfied are you with life today! They also asked participants how much contact they had with nature in the last 7 days, including “parks, canals and natural areas; coasts and beaches, and fields, forests, mountains and rivers”, but not “Including regular shopping trips or time in his garden.”


The researchers asked how often they visited him and how long each trip lasted. From that information, they extrapolated the average weekly performance of the nature of the participants. Sustainability of nature: proxy of the natural ecosystem outlined. Published by the Senior Project Editor on April 18, 2018.

On the occasion of Earth Day, jeel is presenting one of our next articles. Mrs. Scheffer’s article adopts a new approach to establish itself legally for nature. Which is particularly relevant in the current political climate. The printed version of this article will follow in issue 9.2. Man’s attitude towards nature is important today only because we have now acquired a powerful force to change and destroy nature.

But man is part of nature, and his war against nature is essentially a war against himself. We are challenged because humanity has never before been challenged to prove our maturity and our dominance, not of nature, but of ourselves. Rachel Carson made this observation more than fifty years ago and decades of intervention have led to its conclusion.

Our attitude towards nature, and the refusal of the legal system to accept the legal state of nature, has resulted in a legally authorized environmental destruction that has accumulated and accelerated to such an extent that it is a cause for nature and, therefore for the humanity. It presents potential danger. Our laws support corporate rights to exist and prosper financially.

The Environment

This seems rational in capitalist societies, since the great fortunes can depend on corporate well-being. However, corporations are not connected to the natural world as humans breathes air, drinks water and needs food to survive. In an attempt by modern society to use science to separate itself from nature, science has repeatedly shown that we are connected to the environment like any other living being. 

The jurisprudence of the United States does not yet reflect this relationship; There is no legal analogue of corporate rights, which establishes the right to nature, damages and protects against damage. A lawyer for your defense cannot make a direct representation of nature. Although the permanent doctrine of the Supreme Court recognizes a corporation as a “jurist,”

Protect The Environment

It does not recognize nature in the same way. In fact, environmental damage is not relevant in determining whether a person stands out in terms of environmental protection to protect the environment. Shouldn’t nature be granted the same legal rights that companies have to take advantage of it! This question is not new. The concept of the nature of rights has its roots in indigenous cultures and has gained strength in some legal systems.

However, the assumption of recognizing nature as a “judicial person” still exists. As for the legal system, it is far away. This paragraph establishes that such recognition is fully manageable and provides a mechanism through which the recognition of the legal personality of nature can conform to established legal principles without taking into account judicial economics or the theory of political issues.

The identification and loss of a natural ecosystem, compared to a naturalized natural ecosystem (“DNE”), is a specific and definitive “critical individual” scientifically based that has the nature of It is a power that is comparable to the construction of a legal entity of a corporation. Of course, there is a natural ecosystem in nature and not in a courtroom.

But by establishing DNE by location and using DNE scientific and modern technology to make the underlying accusations of injuries, a DNE scientist and lawyers are in a position to build a court. A corporation acquires a “legal personality” through legal forms and registration fees. Through the use of science-based methods and data, nature, on a case-by-case basis, can achieve “legal personality” through the identification of the DNE claimant.

Fundamental Relationship

This same science can identify dangerous injuries or injuries and the alleged cause of such injuries. In this way, the DNE proxy is a construction that creates a judicial figure with a functional structure that is scientifically true and judicially manageable. The DNE proxy will be created and will exist, as a corporation, “in contemplation of the law.”

The use of a DNE proxy for nature will align jurisprudence with modern science and provide a mechanism to balance the adverse judicial process. The DNE tool conforms to the permanent principle of the Supreme Court because it allows the party to appear before the court with a “direct participation in the outcome” and defend it against those that cause harm.

From a broader point of view. This mechanism can allow the achievement of a ‘productive and pleasant harmony between man and his environment’. While the use of the DNE mechanism to recognize the “legal personality” of nature requires only a small analytical step. It also requires the willingness to accept our fundamental relationship and the responsibility of our natural world.


In other words, we will need it, as Rachel Carson recognized 50 years ago, to demonstrate our maturity and our dominion, not of nature, but of ourselves. The Supreme Court through its jurisprudence has developed elements of prestige over time. According to the court, there are three elements of legitimation: first, the plaintiff would be “really hurt.”

In fact, the injury must consist of an invasion of a legally protected interest that is (a) concrete and specialized, and (b) “real or imminent, not ‘speculative’ or ‘imaginary’ Element of injury. In fact, Article III is a difficult jurisdiction floor, which cannot be removed by law. Second, there must be a causal relationship between the injury and the reported behavior.


The injury must be traced fairly as a challenge to the defendant’s action and not the result of the independent action of a third party before the court. Third, this “possibility” should only be contrasted with “speculative,” that the damage would be “redeemed by a favorable judgment.” The party that falls within the federal jurisdiction has the burden of establishing these elements.

Like a human plaintiff, an organization has the independent right to conduct a judicial review to claim its own interests. In determining whether the organization is maintained, the court examines the same article III in the case of a human being. The plaintiff [organization] has claimed such personal interest in the outcome of the dispute [as a court order].

Invoked under the jurisdiction of the Federal Court! Inanimate entities contained in the principle of direct organization of states, churches, nonprofit organizations or for-profit corporations Judicial recognition is, as separate legal entities. Artificial or “legal person” is a concept well established in US law. Simply put, a judicial person is a non-human entity that is granted the status of person by law.

Companies, Societies and Corporations

As expressed by Supreme Court President John Marshall in 1819. Corporation is an artificial, invisible, intangible and existing enterprise only in contemplation of the law. Legally, the Law of the United States Code Dictionary echoes this jurisprudence. The words” person “and” whoever “include corporations, associations, companies, societies, and corporations, as well as individuals.

This article advocates the application of the permanent principles of Article III in favor of Sierra Club v. Morton and Luzon v. Wildlife Defenders (“Luzon II”), which characterize the plaintiff as “concrete and particularly harmful”. Currently, nature depends entirely on local and federal government agencies (for example, EPA) to implement appropriate environmental protection regulations and enforce these regulations and existing environmental laws.

Human Litigants

If the agency does not do so, human litigants or non-living organizations may attempt to review the judiciary using principles of common law, [29] written, or follow a specific legislative authority. At the federal level, environmental laws have authorized ordinary citizens to enforce environmental protection laws through civil lawsuits. The Endangered Species Act (“ESA”).

The Clean Air Act (“CAA”) and the Clean Water Act (“CWA”) have appropriate provisions for citizens. Person can initiate a civil suit on their behalf to designate any person, including the United States and any other government instrument or agency. Who is accused of violating any regulation or regulation issued under any provision or authority of this chapter.

Force the Secretary to run… The ban is established or authorized… This title in relation to the capture of any resident species in danger of extinction or threatened species. Or against the Secretary where the Secretary is accused of breach of any function or duty. This title is not discretionary with the Secretary.

Civil Litigation

The district courts shall have jurisdiction, in relation to the amount in dispute or the citizenship of the parties, to enforce any provision or regulation, or to order the Secretary to perform such act or duty, as may be the case. The CAA contains a clause that allows civil litigation against CAA offenders and a second clause that allows civil lawsuits that challenge EPA actions taken in accordance with the Law.

The CWA states that “[any person] has an interest that may or may be adversely affected “file a lawsuit. When the civil suit does not cause an alleged damage to nature with the authority. A human plaintiff or an organization that is “harmed” or “harmed” by the federal government agency to challenge the Administrative Procedure Act (“APA”) Action.

Environmental Protection

The APA conducts an independent review only when “there is no other appropriate remedy in court,” and states that a court may set aside a government agency action that is “arbitrary, friendly, discretionary. Misuse or otherwise not in accordance with the law. First, the legislative authority of ordinary citizens to file claims to enforce environmental protection laws would appear to be a powerful tool for humans and organizations that seek to protect nature.

However, these litigants often have difficulty convincing the courts that they have a “direct participation” in the litigation that gives them confidence in their position. This avoids many injuries, designed to prevent or enforce any provision of civil lawsuits and any potential damage that may arise under the APA eunuch.

To solve the problem, the injuries that the Court has recognized to establish are often “economic”, recreational or “aesthetic” short-term and relatively inconsistent injuries. In the case of Sierra Club v. Serton. The fate of the Sequoia National Forest and the National Park led Sierra Club (a corporation) and its human members back for economic, recreational or aesthetic injuries, and access to the judicial system.

Environmental Services

Friends of the Earth, Inc. V. In Laidlove Environmental Services (TOC), Inc., the Court held that there should be no harm to water quality to support civil lawsuits under the Law on Clean water. According to the court… The demonstration for the purposes of relevant Article III … is not harm to the environment but damage to the plaintiff.

With respect to the effects of the discharge of mercury into the river What was relevant was the “reasonable concerns” of the plaintiff that affected the plaintiff’s entertainment, aesthetic and economic interests. Even when humans or organizations appeal for recreational, aesthetic, economic or occupational injuries, the Supreme Court does not easily recognize human or organizational interests in environmental protection.

National Forests and National Parks

Due to the “objective injury” of a permanent trial. v. Morton, for example, emerged from a challenge to a decision by the United States government that authorized the construction of a Disney ski resort in the land of national forests and national parks of exceptional ecological value. The Sierra Club claimed that the license agreement was illegal and based on long-standing interest and concern for the protection of the environment.

The Court held that this widespread interest and concern for nature had thwarted the permanent test of the Court because neither the club nor its members suffered a specific cognitive injury. Such as the loss of recreational opportunities or deforestation. And enjoy associated with the license to develop part of the Sequoia National Forest… and park. In Lujan v. National Wildlife Federation (“Lujan I”).

The plaintiffs questioned the efforts of the United States government to review and classify hundreds of plots of public lands that could result in their use for mining. Following the previous set in the Sierra Club, the plaintiffs harmed the enjoyment of their “recreational and aesthetic” land in areas around public lands that opened to claims for mining and leasing of oil and gas.


The Court refused to stand up, since the plaintiffs simply claimed that “they had only extracted land activity in the neighborhood” or “will probably occur” in the neighborhood. The government had classified public lands. The Court held that “an interest in land to settle in developing areas” was insufficient to sustain itself.

In writing for Bahujan, Judge Scalia stated that the civil provisions of the Endangered Species Act cannot pass to a citizen who defends an absent species from damage to an endangered species (or company). In that case, the Department of the Interior promulgated a regulation that exempts actions taken at sea by the US government. UU. Abroad or the Endangered Species Act.

Those who claim to have been injured by wildlife (who claim to be standing) were that two of their human members (“plaintiffs”) had traveled to foreign countries and found their native habitats and animals in danger of extinction (indigo crocodiles, elephants Asians and leopards) and the action of the United States government to finance foreign dam construction projects.

Including the Aswan Dam in Egypt, now threatened the animals with extinction. The human applicant claimed that he intended to return to the habitat of animals in danger of extinction and that he would be harmed if the animals were extinguished. Affirms an ecosystem link argument, a human that uses part of the ecosystem, supports.

An Animal Link Argument

Humans who are interested in studying or watching endangered animals and an occupational rexus argument (which exists a professional interest in endangered animals) to support their claims. Rejecting these arguments, the Court stated that the plaintiffs were unable to demonstrate how the extinction of endangered animals would harm humans in any way.

Because they did not have a concrete and defined plan to return to countries and animals. It is a place of native residence. The Court stated: “To say that the Law [on Endangered Species] protects ecosystems is not to say that the Law has created [if possible] rights of action in [humans]. That are really injured.

They have not happened, namely, humans, who do not use parts of the ecosystem affected by any illegal action. According to the court, the plaintiff’s claims are very important. They were widespread and insufficient to prove concrete and imminent injury. There is no basis to trigger the investigation of Article III on the source of vocal authority.

If the courts were to act on their own, or at the invitation of Congress, to ignore the specific damage requirement described in our cases. They would reject a doctrine for the constitutional role separate and distinct from the third branch, a necessary requirement. Elements that identify those “cases” and “disputes” that are a matter of the courts rather than political branches.

Legal System

Declarations that damage ecosystems are habitats of endangered species “do not directly affect humans.” It lacks both ethical and factual foundations. If we ignore the troubling moral implications of a legal system that allows humans to extinguish other species in our selection.

Judge Scalia’s statement is completely false from a utilitarian point of view. Humans depend on the natural functioning ecosystems of the earth and the biodiversity they operate. Humans depend on rivers to get clean water and edible food.

Animals play an important role in maintaining these functional ecosystems. Crocodiles “clean” these rivers, since they eat bodies of other species and balance the aquatic populations of the rivers. Elephants play an important role in forest ecosystems: commonly known as ‘key’ species, elephants help clear the forest and distribute the seeds of trees and shrubs. But humans depend on food, shelter , clean air, etc.

Clean water As a predator, the Asian leopard plays an important ecological role in controlling the population and health of the species in which it feeds. Therefore, predators affect the potential of biodiversity as part of a healthy natural ecosystem. In 1972, Judge Douglas wrote the following in Sierra Club v Morton as part of his dissent.

Environmental Problems

The important issue of “legitimation” will be simplified and taken into account if we follow a federal standard that allows environmental problems to be ignited, rejected. Exposed to federal agencies or federal courts on behalf of an inanimate object. It allows attacked by roads and bulldozers, and where the injury is subject to public outrage.

The contemporary public concern to protect the ecological balance of nature should lead to prosecute environmental goods for their own protection. Inanimate objects are sometimes parties to litigation. A ship has a legal personality. A useful specification for maritime purposes. The corporation is a creature of a unique singular law. An acceptable adversary, and great fortunes run for their arguments.

Beaches, Ridges, Tree Bushes, Swamps

The ordinary corporation is a “person” for the purpose of subsidiary processes. Whether it represents property, spiritual, aesthetic or charitable causes. Therefore, this honor must be in the valleys, alpine meadows, rivers, lakes, neighborhoods, beaches, ridges, tree bushes, swamps or even in the air that feel the destructive pressures of modern technology and modern life.

It is a moving road that, at that time, could not offer a practical mechanism to identify a representation of the legal personality of nature. As Professor Jonathan Cannon observes in his book, Environment in Balance. There may be several problems associated with recognizing the ability of nature to sustain itself.


Why is the river [as Judge Douglas disagrees in the Sierra Club and not a part of the river is a basin or an ecosystem and is the river the distinctive voice of the ‘unity of ecological life’ that is part of it, or is each unit a potential in itself and as Professor Hope Babcock points out, nature lacks a functional structure remotely similar to a corporation.

The proposal of this paragraph of power DNE provides a mechanism for a corporation to produce a separate and nominal legal entity with a “functional structure. In each case, the representation of the nature of the DNE is established by location.

The impact of the underlying injury. The use of classification systems based on science and definitions of “operational” ecosystems allows us to name, describe and affect a DNI proxy and the injury that occurs or is sustained.

Geographic Information System

Geographic information system (GIS) technology can be displayed on a single map, a polygon of a DNE proxy, with different layers of information collected from a variety of sources, including remote sensing images, cartographic data. As well as previous research Data contained and surveys on site evaluations, drones and photographs.

A natural ecosystem is an organization that consists of organisms that live in a geographic area. As well as in the physical environment, they all work together as a unit. Therefore, the use of the DNE proxy provides a site-specific “umbrella” to cover physical environments, mutual biodiversity, natural habitats and natural processes such as water filtration, air purification and soil retention.

As such, the DNE proxy naturally represents nature’s interest in maintaining and reviving its critical cycles in an existing critical, permanent, threatened or injured geographic area. It is an entity in nature, which becomes a legal person representing nature through human delimitation based on science. Which conforms to the permanent doctrine framework of the Court.

Restoration and Conservation

Delimitation of natural ecosystems using classification systems of science. The classification of natural ecosystems is not new. Humans have painted and classified the earth in one way or another for millennia to identify food, clean water, medicinal plants and other raw materials. Today, the classification of nature is the subject of peer-reviewed scientific literature and is based on legitimate objective information.

Many ecological classifications “exist on international, national, state and local scales. These classifications have different purposes in environmental protection and conservation work. For example, scientists from educational institutions, federal and state agencies, and several international organizations and partners have worked together for decades to develop and maintain the International Botany Classification (“IVC”).

IVC is used by most federal agencies in the United States, as well as statewide natural heritage programs. Natural heritage classifications that have been developed specifically for their own states, either the IVC or the US. UU. The national vegetation taxonomy (“NVC”) can lead to “crosses.” The level of “type of community” in the classification of natural heritage corresponds to the level of “association” of NVC.

Terrestrial Systems

Since 2001, a public-private network of independent organizations has known and that the “NatureServe Network” operates in the Western Hemisphere, analyzing and analyzing data on animals, plants and ecological communities. The classification of nature ‘attempts to organize the ecological complexity of nature; namely, the complex relationship of living beings with non-living environments, in discrete classes.

In turn, these classes provide ecosystem objectives for cataloging, mapping , research, monitoring, restoration and conservation. The Virginia natural heritage programs and Maryland provide examples of classification approaches to natural communities that operate at the state level. Terrestrial systems, for example, are highland habitats ‘consisting of well-drained soils that vary from dry to messy in the moisture regime’.

Terrestrial systems “sustain vegetation that is predominantly upstream and is not hydrophilic”, even when there is occasional flooding or mud. Saturation contrast, the pelvic system “Contains all” non-tidal perennial wetlands ” which are characteristic of emerging vegetation. It is composed of hydrophilic flora and includes wetlands.

Which are permanently saturated with groundwater leaks, permanently flooded wetlands and are in seasonal or intermittent wetlands. Within each system there are orbits, which serve a group of natural communities based on the “natural environment such as soil moisture (eg, putty forest vs. dry forest) or hydrology (eg, wetlands alluvial versus non-alluvial wetlands).”

Biological and Ecological

While Virginia and Maryland have many similarities, their physical and topographic differences appear to be more pronounced at the level of this classification. The divergence of the classes identified demonstrates the flexibility inherent in the general concept of classification systems. Provided that each classification system is internally consistent.

The diversity of different classification systems may reflect the diversity of nature in different physical environments. Within each class there are ecological community groups. Which are aggregations of fine-grained community types based on different combinations of topographic, adaphic, physiological and gross floral similarities.

Ecological Communities

There are two examples of ecological groups found in Maryland. Northern hardwood forest and “Marine swamp”. Natural communities defined at this level (considered a “relatively thick scale”) are generally more suitable for applications such as “ecological modeling and vegetation mapping”. Finally, there are types of smaller-scale ecological communities integrated into each of the groups of ecological communities.

Each type of ecological community is representative of plant communities because plants are “easier to study. Measure and sensitive to physical and biological factors that affect many types of organisms. Plant species are the state of the site and are faithful indicators of plants. Collectively (that is, vegetative) species reflect biological and ecological patterns throughout the landscape.

Classification System

Therefore, the use of plants are typically characterized by ecological communities. Since plant communities are often close to different combinations of other types of organisms occurs. So that natural communities can be used as “thick capture filters that capture. Many species and processes in the community, even if they are not specifically identified.

Ecological communities Type is the level at which the community inventory and conservation action is directed and, as such, at what level of community this is, frequencies are tracked and for what conservation Credit conditions are assigned rows. The types of ecological communities are likely, although not necessarily the appropriate level for the identification of DNE representatives of nature.

DNE proxy

Since this level of classification lends itself to easy interpretation and can be applied site by site. It is in addition, ecological communities can be referenced with other applicable classification frameworks. If the DNE proxy is located in the northeastern United States. For example, the “Northeast Terrestrial Wildlife Habitat Classification System” may provide additional information (focusing on wildlife habitat) to describe the DNE proxy.

The appendix of this article illustrates how one or more classification approaches can be used to implement the DNE proxy mechanism. Science recognizes that there are challenges to identify and describe ecosystems. For example, No classification system can fully reflect the diversity of the community in a landscape. The data available for community-based classification vary in quantity and quality.

Natural conditions and species interactions

As a complement to the classification approach Therefore, the delimitation and description of DNE representatives can benefit from the application of certain concepts and methods. “The “Generic Risk Assessment Protocol” proposed for the IUCN Red List of the ecosystem is incorporated. Once a threatened natural ecosystem is identified and named through one.

More classification approaches, a practical “operational definition” that addresses the four fundamental aspects of the natural ecosystem. Native native biota, abiotic traits, characteristic processes and physical location where they work. What to use Affirms that describes both the DNI proxy and the injury.

Human modification

It is important to note that the level of specificity used to describe each of these four aspects should not be exhaustive. The “uniqueness in the structure and processes of the DNE proxy” and must provide sufficient verifiable information to demonstrate its spatial limits, including the basic elements of DNE.

Each will be addressed (or adjacent to) the contested action. Consistent with this concept is the notion that the DNE of nature will be limited to natural ecosystems behind the scenes, reflecting minimal human modification or those that have largely recovered from prior human disruption in natural conditions and species interactions.

However, this exclusion does not affect the possibility that in the future such ecosystems may “evolve into natural systems that provide sufficient time and freedom for anthropogenic disturbance.” Establishment of DNE nature representation in the courtroom: Instead of the legal acrobatics currently required when individuals or environmental groups seek legal actions to protect nature.

Corporations, Litigation Attorneys

The most current and verifiable scientific methods, frameworks and technology can be used to identify and then natural ecology. The mechanism can be adversely affected in summary. The DNE representation mechanism is designed to identify the plaintiff, who meets all the requirements of Article III of the Court for each case.

For example, if you face a factual scenario like Sierra Club v. Morton. A science-based classification approach can identify DNE claimants and delay the application of an operational definition and describe each DNY claimant. They will have to do so and may suffer injuries. Summarize the four fundamental elements of a natural ecosystem.

Physical Examinations

Finally, the GIS technique can provide a map that shows several layers of information about the fundamental aspects of the DANI proxy, including its spatial limits. Just as litigation attorneys are routinely hired to represent other judicial persons, such as corporations, litigation attorneys will be hired to represent DNE representatives.

The lawyers themselves do not have to be scientists because in the context of other lawsuits, lawyers can work with one or more qualified expert witnesses. For example a lawyer representing an injured person in a medical malpractice case works with one or more qualified medical expert witnesses to perform the necessary physical examinations.

Submits a report to the court, and controls when necessary. Similarly, the lawyer confirmed Sierra Club v. Morton to challenge the permits issued to convert a natural forest ecosystem into a ski resort and a road, to identify and limit the DEN Experts qualified as biologists and ecologists will work with witnesses.

Technology or Theory

Describe the specific and special injury found by the proxy, which is caused by the permitted recreational “growth” of the DNE (s) forests. Dubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. The Supreme Court established a non-exclusive checklist for the courts of first instance to assess the credibility of the testimonies of scientific experts.

The key factors include the following:  the or the theory of the expert can be tested or not, that is, if the theory of the expert can be questioned in some objective sense, or is simply a subjective and extractive approach that is justified by reliability. It cannot be qualified as such.. If the technique or theory has been subject to peer review and publication.

Known or probable rate of error of technique or principle when appropriate; Existence and maintenance of standards and controls. If technology or theory has been generally accepted in the scientific community. The use of a DNE power to establish and protect the legal personality of nature would be novel. However, the underlying information, methods, techniques, standards and framework are not..

This work is the object of objective, verifiable, peer-reviewed publications and studies and projects that adhere to rigorous standards and controls. “Novelty” is limited to the context in which this work can now be applied. Therefore, a DNE representative, to protect himself from direct and imminent injuries, may oppose the agency that issued the permit.

Natural Resources

As well as the company or companies that seek to build the complex or highway. This procedure “preserves the vitality of the confrontation process to assure both, since the parties before the court are genuine, instead of sharing the result and legal questions are presented and it will be resolved, not in the unusual environment of a debated society.

But in a concrete factual context that leads to a realistic appreciation of the consequences of legal action. In this case, the DNE nature representative is fighting against its continued existence. Permission from a government agency and a development company that wants to end the existence of DNE.

But it’s easy to damage nature: doesn’t this flood create courts that challenge every human or corporate act that affects nature? As Professor Bebak says, “Perhaps the problem is less that nature cannot show real or dangerous injuries. It may allow to reach a multitude of statements that would otherwise be ambiguous. One way previously suggested to avoid this problem is to make claims of nature more important.

Ecosystems of Nature

To be considered significant and irreparable. The government’s inaction of natural resources has been compromised.  Others, such as Professor Christopher Stone, suggested in early 1972 that a constitutional list of” favorite articles. This article establishes that all natural functioning ecosystems of nature are threatened or threatened by the government (at the hands of corporations or others), through the DNE mechanism to protect their right to exist.

Opportunities must be provided, it will not be unbearable. The DNE proxy mechanism naturally filters out suspicious claims because the establishment and loss or continuity of each DNE proxy requires the application of a scientific witness and the data through evidence from expert witnesses that the Daubert Standard Below passes the meeting.

Natural Conditions and Interactions

The DNE proxy also inhibits and avoids claims of the individual components of the natural ecosystem because the DNE proxy acts as an umbrella for its “characteristic native biota”. Abiotic environments, processes and key interactions; And spatial distribution. The DNE proxy broadly represents the interests of nature and exists in a given geographical area.

Finally, DNE proxies are limited to natural ecosystems that exhibit minimal human modification or those who have overcome the human disruption passed primarily under natural conditions and interactions of native species. In accordance with all the precedents of the court on the position of Article III, the DNE as plaintiff shall be a part of nature that exhibits a substantial, special or distinct and apparent injury.

In which it has a participation direct. This result can be exchanged through legal action when nature faces or has suffered a loss. To accept the right to nature, within the rigorous current investigation of Article III and within the well-established doctrine of “judicial personality”. The courts will take an important step towards the realization of the purpose behind the National Environmental Policy Law.

This will allow the formation of a national policy designed to foster “harmony between man and his environment” and promote “efforts to prevent or eliminate damage to the environment and the biosphere and humans. It will encourage the health and well-being of “while” enriched “] understanding of ecosystems and natural resources is important to the nation.

Subordination of Nature

The fact that human health depends too much on the health of nature cannot justify the subordination of nature. Moral considerations aside from our relationship with nature, even under the most rigorous utilitarian approach. We must recognize that to protect human health and survival, human beings must bring nature to the state of its natural functioning.

You must be prepared to participate: to first assess the human impact on nature. For this, we have to accept that humans are part of nature, humans do not define it. In the process of identifying a DNE as a “legal entity”, we cannot define or measure a DNE entity in terms of human needs or functions. The simple reason is that catastrophic damage to an ecosystem has also been justified in terms of short-term economic needs.

Services of Resources

For example, a sustainable timber crop in a national forest can be rationalized through acceptance and recognition. The Forest Service does not manage ecosystems only for their management or for some assumption about the internal values of the ecosystem. For the forest service, ecosystem management means producing the desired values, uses, products or services of resources.

Which maintain the diversity and productivity, in particular, nature is the latest in that analysis. Similarly, under the Endangered Species Act, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (“USFWS”) does not designate an “important habitat” for an endangered species unless it is a “economic and other designation”. It does not take into account the effects.

Economically Appropriate

In fact, according to the USFWS,” an area may be excluded from a significant housing designation based on any of the following: economic impact, national security impact “or” any other relevant impact. If the service is determined Does that benefit benefit from excluding the benefits of including it, unless the failure to designate the area as an important habitat causes the species to become extinct!

By clearing the Appalachian forests, destructive practices of coal mining, the destruction of mountain biodiversity peaks worldwide and the filling of mountain valley currents, it is economically appropriate when mortalit and Human morbidity are associated with these practices. Another existing example is the death of the Great Barrier Reef.


In human terms, defenders in favor of reef conservation can argue that if the reef dies. Then $ 6 billion in tourism revenue and future generations will lose the ability to enjoy the reef. However, as André Dow explains, “Such arguments invite refutations that have actually been used. The value of coal that will be transported across the reef, power to countries around the world.

The need to provide and, above all, the importance of unifying economic development. If we value nature through the lens of “utility” for humanity, then the cost of destroying nature will almost always be justified. The following two hypothetical case studies are examples of how DNE proxy mechanisms can be used in a manageable and verifiable manner.

However, none of these hypothetical case studies have available legal claims or a complete fragmentation of science. And technology that can be implemented in support of DNE representatives or face imminent losses. Hypothetical Case Study 1: Morton Redux in the Central Appalachian Mountains of the Sierra Club v. East of the United States.

Development Support

The National Forest Service approved a permit to build a ski resort in the Queen Mineral National Forest (“National Forest”). As part of the plan for which the permits were approved. A road will be cut across the national highway and 2,000 acres of forest will become open ground for hotel development, along with a convention center and auxiliary infrastructure.

Just as lawyers can work on behalf of non-humanitarian entities such as corporations, the lawyers here will act on behalf of the affected DNE representative and a comprehensive decision to prevent deforestation of 2,000 acres is a Complaint by declaratory judgment and court order.

To prepare for the case, a legal team will be assembled that includes lawyers and scientists (such as forest ecologists and plant and wildlife biologists) that will identify legal representatives appropriate for nature. The mountains that will be lost and developed are found in the Maryl and part of the National Forest and are part of the Appalachian mountain range.

Ecological Community Group

Using biological and abiotic indicators, such as soil type and humidity, local climate, distribution of native plant species, physical characteristics of the land and specific ecosystem processes. Scientists must first confirm that the geographic area is He found The lesion is a natural ecosystem that exhibits little human disturbance.

This first step, using the Maryland natural communities classification approach to identify types of ecological communities, may also include. The putty forest is characterized by a wet and well drained soil that supports succulent vegetation. Ecological community group, aposperous cove forests… additional resources may include the Nature serve ecological systems classification approach.

Maryland’s most important wildlife habitat and various levels of on-site evaluation data for field sampling. The application of an operational definition of natural ecosystems describes the basic elements that differentiate and define the DNE proxy and are found in this case. The unique native biota of DNE, its abiotic complex and its main processes and interactions can be described as follows.

Magnesium and Manganese

DNE “is characterized by vast and diverse forests of mountainous slopes located in protected landscapes such as coves, ravines and low concave slopes. These terraces provide shade, protection against strong winds and very wet soils. It lends itself to the situation. DNE consists of a deep and fertile soil, with a wide variety of substrates, which contain high levels of calcium, magnesium and manganese.

The soil is moderately alkaline and supports very diverse and succulent layers. The characteristic canopy is dominated by sugar, maple, American linden, white ash and tulip, while the herbaceous layer is diverse and typically includes ansroot, wild ginger, white sun glasses and wild columbine. The DNE proxy is a habitat for many types of concerns.

Central Forest Ecosystem

And including Allegheny woodrat, lynx, North American porcupine, Eastern red bat and American woodpecker, golden eagle, mountain chorus frog, wooden turtle and Sanderson’s bumblebee. It has also been claimed that the diversity of this DNE proxy is the richest in this region of the United States.

GIS mapping polygons can describe the unique characteristics of DNE proxies at the limits of the DNE proxy, location (latitude and longitude coordinates) and data layers. Removing the forest and turning it into a comprehensive ski resort will destroy 2,000 contiguous acres of trees. As shown below, the identification and description of appropriate DNE as a proxy for “legal entity” for nature appears with a new level of clarity.

That the challenged action will not only destroy the “trees”, but will also act naturally and create a central forest ecosystem in the Appalachian Rich Cove, which will result in cumulative and far-reaching impacts. The application of the law in a scientific context shows that the applicant DNE Central Appalachian Rich Cove Forest DNE/ latitude / longitude coordinates for polygons / GIS boundary lines] completes each element of the permanent test.

National Environmental Policy Act

At first, the plaintiff would have been “really hurt.” In fact, the injury must consist of an invasion of a legally protected interest, which is (a) concrete and specialized, and (b) “real or imminent, not” adjective “or” imaginary. Invasion of interests legally protected: the plaintiff seeks restrictive decisions and precautionary measures that allow federal authorities a comprehensive ski development to destroy it.

Plaintiffs’ lawyers rely on 10 10 of the Administrative Procedure Act. Which accuses the agency of “judicial” review of a legally injured person, or [who] in the sense of the agency, because of agency action Is negatively affected or affected by the action. The plaintiff-his lawyers claimed that the proposed development governs federal laws and the protection of national forests and the National Environmental Policy Act.

National Forest Management Law

Association of data processing service organizations, Inc. V. Camp and Barlow v. In Collins, the court held that the persons should receive a judicial review of the actions of the federal agency under the APA of 10, where they claimed that the cause of the contested action was “de facto injury”.

And where the alleged injury It was definitely about an interest “to be protected or regulated safely within the area of interest”, a claim of infringement by those agencies was. One of the fundamental characteristics of the plaintiff is that it is a forest located within a national forest. The National Forest Management Law applies to forests in national forests.

The plaintiff faces destruction and, therefore, is within the “area of interest” of the National Forest Management Law. The injury that is really solid and specialized. Expert testimony indicated that deforestation and development of the plaintiff’s 2,000 acres of land in an extensive ski resort would result in a series of injuries, including.

The soil of the monolithic forest is moist and contains nutrients. If the plaintiff’s forest cover is removed, the work floor will be exposed to the sun’s rays. Soil moisture and nutrients will evaporate and bacteria that help break down organic matter will be affected. Finally, the rain will wash the soil surfaces and begin erosion.

Stream Erosion

The loss of the forest canopy causes more extreme temperature changes and that negatively affect the native biota characteristic within the plaintiff; The plaintiff loses its microclimate created by the forest and the ability to provide its associated plant and animal habitat. The Queen River mineral basin (home of the native brook trout) is very compact. Currently, the valley forest (intact) filters and controls the flow of rainwater.

The leafy canopy accepts rain, modifying the fall of the rain. The soil of the Wadi forest acts like a sponge and can absorb more than a foot of rain slowly before the groundwater flows slowly and recharges it. If the plaintiff’s forest board is removed and replaced by roads, parking lots and hotels (waterproof surfaces). The river and the streams will be affected immediately.

Due to the increase in the impermeable surface, water flows from the “earth”. Which travels through the surface to the surface. As this “stormwater runoff” travels to currents that collect pollutants and accelerate. This leads to flooding, stream erosion, sediment and pollutant loading, degradation of water quality and loss of habitat for brook trout. If the plaintiff is destroyed, an area rich in biodiversity will be lost.

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