However, Homo sapiens (modern humans) flourished only 400,000 and 250,000 years ago. Humans have evolved from familiar hominids (great apes) that have existed on Earth for almost 20 million years.
Over time, there are several human species with different characteristics on Earth, but not all human species have survived the journey with many of them. The only human species that remains is Homo sapiens.
The idea of humans associating with apes emerged in 1859 after the publication of The Origin of Charles Darwin’s Species. He was the first to point out that each species is one of the first. Later, two scientists, Thomas Huxley and Richard Owen, supported him. Huxley published a book in 1863 entitled Evidence in Man’s Nature.
Although scientists have held many ideas and theories, the main problem was the evidence because there was a shortage of fossil intermediaries. Eugene DuBois first discovered a fossil intermediary in Trinil in the Dutch East Indies (nowadays Indonesia) in 1891.
Which shows that there were species between humans and apes. He called his discovery Pithenanthropus Erectus or Java Man. Additional fossils were discovered in Africa in 1920 and studies on the evolution of humans began thereafter. Here is a list of seven Homo species that exist on Earth:
Homo heidelbergensis lived on Earth between 700,000 and 200,000 years ago. They emigrated from Africa. Homo heidelbergensis males were approximately 5 feet 9 inches (175 cm) tall and weighed approximately 136 pounds (62 kg), while the female was an average height of 5 feet 2 inches (157 cm) and 112 pounds (51 kg ).
It had a larger, flatter brain box than today’s humans. They were the first human species to adapt to the cold weather and make it their habitat for their habitat. They were also widely known for their ability to hunt large animals, which had not been seen in their first human species.
The first fossil of Homo Heidelbergensis was discovered on October 21, 1907 by a worker in Germany. The worker handed it to Professor Otto Schuetensack of the University of Heidelberg, who later identified and named the fossil.
Homo rudolfensis is another extinct species that falls into the category of hominids. It is believed that they lived 1.9 million to 1.8 million years ago. Its physical constitution, weight and height are still unknown due to the lack of cranial fossils.
On August 8, 2012, paleoanthropologist Meave Leakey and his team announced the discovery of a face and two jaws related to Homo rudolfensis. The fossil known as KNM-ER 1470 was at the center of a debate about its age. It was previously thought to be around three million years old, but then corrected to 1.9 million.
The difference in the skulls of other Homo species led to the creation of a new species called Homo rudolfensis. There are some characteristics of ER 1470 that suggest that it is indistinguishable from other Homo species, such as muscle deficiency, a lack of australopethesin skull and a softly rounded occipital bone similar to Homo erectus.
However, other outstanding features suggest that Homo rudolfensis differs from other Homo species, with the upper part narrower than the middle and with several megadont postcanins.
Homo habilis was another species of hominids that lived on Earth between 2.4 and 1.4 million years ago. Homo habilis had some characteristics similar to those of apes, such as long arms and a moderately pregnant face. He had a large brain box in the range of 550 cm to 687 cm. However, it had a small face and small teeth.
It has been debated whether Homo habilis should be classified as Homo because they had very few characteristics of other Homo species, but scientists discovered that they had the ability to use stone tools for various purposes. It was the skill.
Three main fossils of Homo habilis are available: KNM-ER 1813, OH 24 and OH 8. The first fossil was found by scientists in the 1960s in the Olduvai Gorge of Tanzania by Lewis and Mary Leeke.
It is believed that Homo fluorescensis lived in Indonesia 95,000 to 17,000 years ago. They were quite small, about 3.5 feet, with a small brain. There is evidence that Homo fluorescensis made stone tools and hunted small elephants and large rodents.
The main fossils of Homo fluorescence were found in Indonesia in 2003 and were called LB-1. The woman’s head was one third the size of the modern human brain. Perhaps their small bodies allowed them to survive on a small island with limited resources.
Homo erectus is an extinct species of primitive humans that lived in the Pleistocene period from approximately 1.9 million years to the most recent 143,000 years ago. Eugene DuBois discovered the first Eutrus fossils in Java (in present-day Indonesia) in the early 1890s. The fossil study showed that Homo erectus originated in Africa and spread from India, China, Georgia and Java.
The homo erectus was generally in the range of 4 feet 9 inches to 6 feet 1 inch, weighing approximately 88 to 150 pounds. Their height and weight were different from fossils found in other parts of the world. The fossils of Africa were larger than those of Indonesia, China and Georgia. His long legs and short arms helped him to climb trees easily and run faster than modern humans.
Neanderthal is an extinct human species that has the closest resemblance to modern humans. Only 0.12 percent of its DNA is isolated from modern humans. It is believed that Neanderthal existed about 600,000 to 30,000 years ago, and lived in Central Asia throughout Europe and the southwest.
They possessed most of the characteristics of modern humans, used various tools for hunting and used symbolic decorative objects. There is evidence that they buried their dead with offerings like flowers. It has also been found that some previous human species are involved in such symbolic behavior.
A study has indicated that Neanderthal and modern human brains were similar at birth. However, in adulthood, his mind grew larger. They were stronger than modern humans with a huge body size: male (164–168 cm) and female (156–158 cm).
Most hominid species on Earth became extinct during climate change, but Homo sapiens survived and became the ancestor of modern humans. Homo sapiens lived together, looked for food and evolved to the point of being able to withstand the climatic changes that occur. In addition to hunting.
He discovered how certain plants spread and how to raise animals, which changed history forever. He soon learned to cook more food and ate a variety of animals and plants. Their control over fire and their tendency to live in large groups also created better shelters.
Scientists have found several fossils that support the strong evidence of Homo sapiens. The oldest known fossils were discovered in Hiro, Ethiopia. Researchers at the University of California found the skulls of two adults and one child, who lived between 160,000 and 40,000 years before modern times.