A 99 Million Year Old Beetle Trapped In Amber

Beetle Trapped In Amber Served As A Pollinator For Evergreen Cycads

The 99 million-year-old beetle trapped in amber served as a pollinator for evergreen cycads Flowering plants are well known for their special relationship with insects and other animals that serve as pollinators. But, before the emergence of angiosperms, another group of unusual evergreen gymnosperms, known as cycads, may have been the first plants pollinated by insects.

Now, researchers who reported in the journal Current Biology on August 16 have discovered the earliest definitive fossil evidence of that intimate relationship between cycads and insects. The discovery came in the form of an ancient Boganiido beetle preserved in Burmese amber for an estimated 99 million years along with cycane pollen grains.

The beetle also shows special adaptations, including mandibular patches, for transporting cycane pollen. “Boganid beetles have been ancient pollinators of cycads since the era of cycads and dinosaurs,” says Chenyang Cai, now a researcher at the University of Bristol.

Our finding indicates a probable ancient origin of pollination of cycad beetles at least in the early Jurassic, long before the domain of angiosperm and radiation of pollinators of flowering plants, such as bees, later in the Cretaceous.

When Cai’s supervisor, Diying Huang, from the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, first showed him the beetle trapped in amber, he was immediately intrigued. He acknowledged that his large jaws with bristly cavities could suggest that the beetle was a cycad pollinator.

After cutting, trimming and polishing the specimen to see it better under a microscope, Cai’s emotion only grew. The beetle carried several groups of tiny pollen grains. Cai consulted Liqin Li, an expert in ancient pollen from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, who confirmed that pollen grains belonged to a cycad.

A dorsal view of the Cretaceous Cretoparacucujus cycadophilus beetle, including the mandibular cavities that it probably used for pollination. The researchers also conducted an extensive phylogenetic analysis to explore the family tree of the beetle.

His analysis indicates that the fossilized beetle belonged to a sister group of the existing Australian Paracucujus, which pollinates the cycad relic Macrozamia riedlei.

The finding, along with the current disjunctive distribution of beetle-herbivorous pairs and cycad hosts in South Africa and Australia, supports an ancient origin of pollination of cycad beetles, the researchers say.

Cai notes that the findings along with the distribution of modern boganid beetles lead him to suspect that similar pollinators of cycad beetles have not yet been found. He has been looking for them for the past five years.

The challenge, he says, is that older Jurassic beetles are generally found as compression fossils not trapped in amber. Plants with flowers: Flowering plants Flowers are beautiful parts of plants that give us visual appeal. We all love flowers and their good smell.

Many people visit parks and forests to see plants and flowers. You may be familiar with the famous rose flower, which has a red color and a good smell. So how do plants produce flowers and why? Find it out!

What is flower: The flower of the flower of a plant is the reproductive part of the plant that contains the sexual organs of the plant. They produce seeds for new plants by pollination. The main characteristics of a flower are sepals, petals, stamens, filaments, ether, pistils, stigmas and carpels.

Life cycle of flowering plants: Life cycle plant A flowering plant begins its life as a seed, which sprouts to grow its first roots and leaves. Then, the plant continues to grow and take the necessary things for its growth, until it reaches full maturity.

Mature plants produce flowers, which when pollinated produce seeds. These newly produced seeds begin their lives again and follow the same cycle. See the life cycle of plants: Pollination. When flowers are produced by the pollination of plants, they need to be pollinated to produce seeds.

Pollination of plants occurs when pollen is released from the male part of a plant called an ovary. As a result, fertilization occurs and new seeds are produced. Pollination of plant methods: Plants produce flowers that attract many insects and birds. These insects and birds receive pollen in their bodies.

Pollen is dropped while moving from flower to flower. Air plays an important role for pollination plants that are far from each other. The wind takes pollen from plants and takes it to other plants. Humans also carry pollen from one plant to another to increase fertility.

The seeds: Sunflower seeds are produced when plants are fertilized. These seeds contain the embryo of a plant (like a child) and essential foods. It is protected with an outer coating. The seed must germinate to grow as a plant. For germination, you need many essential things, including rich soil and water (see how plants grow).

Flowering plants arrived in Australia 126 million years ago: study: The oldest angiosperms (flowering plants) in Australia are about 126 million years old and resemble modern magnolia, buttercups and laurels, according to new research published in Paleobotany and Paleonology.

Our research on dinosaur reefs in Victoria suggests that warmer temperatures allowed plants with earlier flowers to migrate to colder regions on Earth’s poles, “said Vera Corcidis, a researcher at the Smithsonian Institution. Who did an investigation. Assistant at the University of Melbourne.

The true diversity of primitive flowers in the South Pole’s surroundings has been discovered just because ‘believing’ resulted in the production of pollen particles, originating from previous flowers, which collapsed in the sink for more than 50 years.

In the study, Drs. Corasidis and his colleague, Dr. from the University of Melbourne. Barbara Wagstaff analyzed fossil pollen and ancient angiosperm leaves from various sites, such as the Otway and Gypsyland basins, in Victoria, southeast Australia.

“We recreate our first forests with flowers for 126–100 million years (Cretaceous period) to conclude that climate change slowed the expansion of flowers in Australasia or temperatures in the high latitudes of the South Supported as soon as possible. Flowering plants, ”he explained.

We also established that the first flowers were related to 72% of the current live angiosperm species, which first appeared in southern Australia about 108 million years ago, 17 million years after the first flowers developed in the equatorial regions – They said

The oldest flower in the world, Montesia, is 130 million years old and was discovered in Spain. Our study will help unify the fossil record of Australia and understand the interactions between climate, carbon dioxide and the evolution of organisms and flora, said Dr. Corasidis said

Flowering plants arrived in Australia 126 million years ago: the oldest angiosperms (flowering plants) in Australia are also 126 million years old and according to new research published in Pobobotany and Paleonology, the studies and, in addition, they find Modern magnolia, buttercups and laurel It looks like.

Our research on dinosaur reefs in Victoria suggests that warmer temperatures allowed earlier flowering plants to migrate to colder regions on Earth’s poles, said Vera Corsidis, a researcher at the Smithsonian Institution. He did research. Assistant at the University of Melbourne.

The true diversity of primitive flowers around the South Pole has been discovered simply because ‘faith’ resulted in the production of pollen particles, which originated from previous flowers, which had collapsed in the sink for more than 50 years. Dar “In the study, Dr. Corasidis and his colleague,

Dr. Barbara Wagstaff of the University of Melbourne, analyzed fossil pollen and ancient angiosperm blades from various sites such as the Otway and Gypsyland Basins in Victoria, southeast of Australia.

Our first forests with flowers of 126–100 million years (Cretaceous period) concluded that climate change slowed the flowering of flowers in Australia or increased temperatures in the high latitudes borne by the south as soon as possible. Flowering plants, he explained.

We also established that the first flowers were related to 72% of the current live angiosperm species, which first appeared in southern Australia about 108 million years ago, evolving in the equatorial regions 17 million years later.

He said – that the oldest flower in the world, Montesia, is 130 million years old and was discovered in Spain. Our study will help to unify the fossil record of Australia and understand the interactions between climate, carbon dioxide and the evolution of organisms and flora, said Dr.

Study: Flowering plants arrived in Australia 126 million years ago: According to new research published in Paleobotany and Paleonology, Australia’s oldest angiosperms (flowering plants) are around 126 million years old & resemble modern magnolia, the golden button and the laurel.

Our research on dinosaur reefs in Victoria suggests that flowering plants were allowed warmer temperatures than previously allowed to migrate to colder areas on Earth’s poles, said Vera Corkidis, a researcher at the Smithsonian Institution. Ki Assistant at the University of Melbourne.

“The true diversity of primitive flowers around the South Pole has been discovered simply because ‘faith’ resulted in the production of pollen particles, which originated from previous flowers, which collapsed in the sink for more than 50 years.

In the study, Drs. Corasidis and his colleagues, from the University of Melbourne, Drs. Barbara Wagstaff analyzed fossil pollen and ancient angiosperm leaves from various sites, such as the Otway and Gypsyland basins in Victoria, southeast Australia.

“We remodeled our first forests with flowers for 126–100 million years (Cretaceous period) to conclude that climate change has slowed the expansion of flowers in Australia or as quickly as possible in the south. Temperatures rose to higher latitudes of K. Flowering plants, ”he explained.

“We also established that the first flowers were related to 72% of the current live angiosperm species, which first appeared in southern Australia about 108 million years ago, flowers that developed in equatorial regions 17 million years later “.

“The oldest flower in the world, Montesia, is 130 million years old and was discovered in Spain.” “Our study will help unify the fossil record of Australia and understand the interactions between climate, carbon dioxide and the evolution of fauna and flora,” said Dr. Koracidis said

Flowering plants arrived in Australia 126 million years ago: the oldest angiosperms (flowering plants) in Australia are also 126 million years old and, according to new research published in Pobobotany and Paleonology, studies and, in addition, are modern magnolia Buttercups And Laurel seems so.

“Our research on dinosaur reefs in Victoria suggests that warmer temperatures allowed the first flowering plants to move to colder regions on Earth’s poles,” said Vera Corsidis, a researcher at the Smithsonian Institution in Melbourne. University assistant.

“The true diversity of primitive flowers around the South Pole has been discovered only because pollen particles were produced as a result of ‘belief’, which was generated from previous flowers that had collapsed in the sink for over 50 years. In Dar’s study, Drs. Korasidis and his colleagues,

Melbourne University Dr. Barbara Wagstaff analyzed fossil pollen and ancient angiosperm blades from various sites in southeastern Australia, such as Victoria’s Otway and the Gypsyland Basin.

We have our first forage with flowers of 126–1100 million years (Cretaceous period). He concluded that climate change slowed the flowering of flowers in Australia or increased temperatures in the high latitudes borne by the south as soon as possible.

Flowering plants, “he explained.” We also established that the first flowers were related to 72% of the current live angiosperm species, which first appeared in southern Australia about 108 million years ago, evolving in the equatorial regions 17 million years later.

“He said” that the oldest flower in the world, Montesia, is 130 million years old and was discovered in Spain. Our study will help to unify the fossil record of Australia and understand the interactions between climate, carbon dioxide and the evolution of organisms. And flora “, Dr. Koracidis said

A 99 million year old beetle trapped in amber served as a pollinator for perennial cycles. Flowering plants are well known for their special affinity for insects and other animals that act as pollinators. But, before the rise of angiosperms, another group of unusual evergreen gymnosperms, known as cycces, may have been the first insect-pollinated plants.

Now, researchers who reported in the journal Biology on August 16 have uncovered definitive early fossil evidence of an intimate relationship between cycads and pests. The discovery came in the form of an ancient boganyd beetle.

Which has been preserved in Burmese amber for almost 99 million years, along with cymad pollen grains. The beetles also show special adaptations for the transport of cycle pollen, including mandatory patches.

Since the Age of Cycles and Dinosaurs, bognids have been ancient pollinators of the beetle cycle, says Chenyang Cai, researcher at the University of Bristol. “Our discovery indicates a possible ancient origin of Cylinder beetle pollination.

At least in the early Jurassic, long before the dominance of angiosperms and irradiation by pollinators of flowering plants such as bees, later in the Cretaceous “

When Kai’s supervisor Diang Huang of the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology at the Chinese Academy of Sciences first showed him a beetle trapped in amber, he was immediately surprised. He considered that his large mandis with large numbers of mandis could explain the beetle as a cyclist pollinator.

After cutting, trimming, and polishing the sample for a better view under the microscope, the Cai stimulation only increased. The beetle carried several groups of small pollen particles. Cai consulted Liqin Li, an ancient pollen expert at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, who confirmed that the pollen particles belong to a cycad.

The researchers also performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis to locate the beetle’s family tree. Their analysis indicates that the fossil beetles belong to a sister group to the Australian parasecugus, which pollinates the Cycad relic Macrozamia ridlei.

According to the researchers, the current distribution of related beetle-herbivore and cycad-host pairs in South Africa and Australia, in addition to supporting the ancient origins of Cyclus beetle pollination.

Cai points out that the findings with the distribution of modern bogneid beetles lead him to suspect that no beetle pollinators similar to Cyclades have yet been found. He has been looking for them for the past five years. The challenge, she said, is that older Jurassic beetles are generally found as compound fossils not trapped in amber.

Leave a reply

%d bloggers like this: