The Giant Planet orbited the Sun-like star TOI-849 The newly discovered

The remaining core of the giant planet orbited the Sun-like star TOI-849. The newly discovered planet’s nucleus, called TOI-849b, is a gas giant that was stripped of its gas atmosphere or failed to form one in its first years of life.

Artist’s impression of the exoplanet in the form of Neptune. TOI-849 is a dwarf star G, located 741 light-years away in the sculptor’s constellation. Listed as TIC33595516 and TYC 6431-1158-1, the star is slightly smaller and less massive than the Sun and is 6.7 billion years old.

TOI-849b is a smaller radius than Neptune, but with a mass of 39.1 times that of Earth, about half the mass of Saturn. The object is 3.4 times larger than our home planet and has an average density of 5.2 g / cm3 similar to Earth, making it the densest Neptune-sized planet ever discovered.

The TOI-849b has an equilibrium temperature of 1,527 ° C (2,781 ° F) and an orbital period of just 18 hours, making it an “ultra-short duration” object. The nucleus of the planets is also found in the so-called Neptune Desert, an area close to the stars where astronomers rarely see planets of the mass of Neptune or larger.

“While it is an unusually massive planet, it is far from the largest scale we know of,” said Dr. David Armstrong, a researcher at the Center for Exoplanets and Habitability and the Department of Physics at the University of Warwick.

But it is the largest we know of for its size, and it is too dense for the size of Neptune, which tells us that the planet has a very unusual history. The fact that it’s in a strange location because of its mass also helps: We don’t see planets with this mass in these short orbital periods.

“TOI-849b has a high density and therefore consists primarily of iron, rock, and water, but only very little hydrogen and helium,” said Dr. Astronomer, an Institute of Physics at the University of Bern. Christophe Mordacini said.

“Such a small amount of hydrogen and helium for such a large planet is truly amazing.” Hopefully a lot of hydrogen and helium will increase when this planet is formed.

The TOI-849b was discovered by NASA’s Transit Exoplanet Study Satellite (TESS) and then confirmed using a high-precision radial velocity planet-searching spectrograph (HARPS) mounted on a 3.6m telescope at the Observatory ESO’s Chair.

“There are two theories as to why we are looking at the origin of the planet, rather than a specific gas giant,” astronomers said. The first is that it was once identical to Jupiter, but lost all of its external gas through various methods.

These may include disintegrating tides, where the planet orbits very close to its star or collides with another planet. “Large-scale photovapilation of the atmosphere may also play a role, but it does not take into account all the gases that have been lost.

“Alternatively, it could be a failed gas giant,” he said. We believe that once the core of the vastness of the gas is formed, something can go wrong and an atmosphere is never created.

This can occur if there is a difference in the dust disk that forms from the planet, or if it forms late and the disk is ejected from the material. We have the opportunity to see the origin of a planet in a way that we cannot do in our solar system, Drs. Armstrong said.

“For example, there are still big open questions about the nature of Jupiter’s origin, such that strange and unusual exoplanets give us a window into planet formation that we have no other way to explore.”

“Although we have no idea of its chemical composition, we can follow it with other telescopes.” Because TOI-849b is so close to the star, the nucleus must continually replenish any remaining atmosphere around the planet.

So if we can measure that environment, we can get an idea of the creation of the nucleus itself. The discovery is reported in research published in the July 1, 2020 issue of the journal Nature.

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