The mystery of the fast radio burst is deepened: they can be repeated although it was recently reported that a mysterious class of astronomical phenomena of rapid radio burst now makes sense

The Mystery Of The Fast Radio Burst Is Deepened: They Can Be Repeated Although It Was Recently Reported That A Mysterious Class Of Astronomical Phenomena Of Rapid Radio Burst Now Makes Sense

The mystery of the fast radio burst is deepened: they can be repeated although it was recently reported that a mysterious class of astronomical phenomena of rapid radio burst now makes sense.

And also that the analysis (and those conclusions) turned out to be flawed. But data from a new study published today suggests that some of these repeated radio burst events are repeated.

And not only are they expected to understand them, but the solutions promoted from previous studies differ in light of these new data. . Here is their story of what they are, as well as what we have learned.

In 2007, the Parkes radio telescope in Australia, one of the largest adjustable radio telescopes in the world, found a signal unlike any other: a tremendously energetic and unsolved signal for only one thousandth of a second.

When he pointed his other telescopes to see it, there was nothing: no optical signal, no tracking signal, no gamma rays or infrared radiation, nothing. In the nine years after that observation, other giant radio telescopes such as Arecibo have also seen them critically.

But during all those years, there was no indication of what they could be, and if their surroundings had their origins, they would be, of stars (or even aliens) from our Milky Way, or Universe far, far away.

Recently it was claimed that this mystery had been solved, and a team claimed that a galaxy had been identified where these radio explosions originated. Given what the same signal was supposed to be: a quick radio burst (seen in the parks) a few hours later followed by a weak radio signature (a different square instrument) (a set of square kilometers) would take a position with She could triangulate.

Originated in the sky, coinciding with a huge elliptical galaxy about six billion light years away. Since the elliptical giants are filled primarily with stellar remains such as old red stars and neutron stars and black holes, it was assumed that this event, fast, violent.

And energetic, would probably come from the merger of two of these collapsed objects, and if it is So, we can know all the details. Specifically, these signals can be used to measure the amount of normalized ionized matter in the interstitial medium.

Which can represent a fraction of the dark (barionic) matter that is theorized but still present in our universe. Has never been seen in….Alex Chernai of Australia Telescope Compact Array, where follow-up comments were made, Compact Array of the Australian Telescope, where the follow-up.

But as much as we want to appease these results and shout “unravel the mystery,” a careful analysis of those data suggests that the weak radio signature used to confirm (and triangular) rapid radio bursts is very likely: It was a completely different incident: From an active galactic nucleus.

Supermassive black holes in the nucleus of distant galaxies exhibit a low baseline and an occasional flash of radio emission that temporarily increases their brightness. The observations of Edo Berger and Peter Williams of Harvard showed that this low baseline radio wave was still in the host galaxy, indicating that it was a mere coincidence and that the origin of the rapid radio explosion was not resolved in absolute.

At the same time this work was done, Paul Scholz, a graduate student at McGill University, was transferring through radio data from the Arecibo Observatory and had fun. “I knew immediately that the search would be extremely important on Mac. Study FRB,” Scholz said.

There were ten signals in the data with rapid bursts of radio, but this time they were different: they were repeated, instead of just unique events! The fact is that there are many events and the data is very good, even if they are seen with a single instrument to be able to measure their dispersion.

Although we still cannot determine their position well, this dispersion allows us to conclude that they are outside the Milky Way. The first author of the article, Laura Spitler, adds the following: “Not only were these explosions repeated, but also their brightness and spectra differ from other FRBs.”

He initially discovered “burst 1” and 10 new bursts of the radio burst source FRB 121102 were quickly detected. The burst is shown as a function of the radio observation frequency, and the signal expressed at all observed frequencies is shown at the top in each case. This is figure 2 of the new article published today in Nature. Image credit: Paul Scholz

Initially “Burst 1” and 10 new bursts were discovered that were seen from the source of fast radio burst FRB… The results of this study point to a large scale, not to the emission of collapsed objects, but to the emissions of a young neutron star in early development.

However, to be sure, its position should be determined, something that would require a variety of radio telescopes instead of a single plate. Those follow-up comments are planned, hoping to eventually resolve the mystery of the fast radio explosion once and for all.

Once we have correctly located the position of the repeater in the sky, we can compare observations of optical and X-ray telescopes and see if there is a galaxy there, says study co-author Jason Hessels. They are.

Discovering the host galaxy from this source is important to understand its properties. If the team can do this, then we can know where the rapid bursts of radio come from and if the repeaters are classes of objects completely different from a bar burger, or this solution solves the mystery for all of them.

The rapid observation of radio bursts deepens the astronomical mystery: astronomers point to the origin of an intense radio explosion that is repeated in a nearby spiral galaxy, challenging theories about the unknown source of these pulses.

Observations with an 8-meter North Gemini telescope of a program at the National NSF Optical Infrared Astronomy Research Laboratory have allowed astronomers to determine the location of rapid radio bursts in a nearby galaxy: it is Earth and only the closest Create a familiar example. 

The second source of repeated bursts to indicate their position in the sky. The source of the explosion of radio waves is completely different from the atmosphere seen in previous studies. This finding defies researchers‘ assumptions about the origin of these already widely exaggerated phenomena.

An unsolved mystery in astronomy is even more surprising. The source of the rapid radio burst (FRB), a sudden explosion of radio waves in a few thousandths of a second, has not been known since its discovery in 2007. This research was published today in the scientific journal Nature and presented in the 235th meeting. The American Astronomical Society has indicated the origin of FRB in unpredictable environments in the nearby spiral galaxy. 

Observations with the North Gemini Telescope of the NSF Optical Infrared Astronomy Research Laboratory (OIR Lab) on tautology in Hawaii played an important role in the discovery, further deepening the nature of these extragalactic pulses.

The sources of FRB and their nature are mysterious: many are exploited one by one, but very few of them sprout frequently. The recently discovered FRB, identified by the ubiquitous designation FRB 180916.J0158 + 65, is one of five sources with a precisely known location and only the second source that indicates repeated explosions.

These FRBs are called localized and can be associated with a particular distant galaxy, which allows astronomers to make additional observations that can provide information about the origin of the radio pulse.

“The location of this object is fundamentally different from the FRB repetitions located above, but also from all previously studied FRBs,” explains Kenji Nimmo, a PhD student at the University of Amsterdam and author of this article.

It blurs the difference between repetitive and non-repetitive rapid radio bursts. It may be that the FRB originates from a large zoo of locations throughout the universe and simply needs to follow certain specific circumstances.

You need to see the location of FRB 180916.J0158 + 65 in radio and optical wavelengths. FRBs can only be detected with radio telescopes, so radio observation is fundamentally necessary to accurately determine the position of FRBs in the sky. This particular FRB was first discovered by the Canadian Telescope Array CHIME in 2018.

New research used the European VLBI Network (EVN) to locate the source, but optical tracking observation was only possible with the Gemini Northern telescope to measure the exact distance and local environment of the radio source. The International Gemini Observatory includes telescopes in the northern and southern hemispheres, which can simultaneously reach the entire night sky.

“We use cameras and spectrographs at the Gemini North Telescope,” explains Sriharsh Tendulkar, a postgraduate fellow at McGill University in Montreal. Canada that observed the analysis of Gemini data and beyond. “These observations revealed that the FRB originates from a spiral arm of the galaxy, in a region that is rapidly forming stars.”

However, the source of FRB 180916.J0158 + 65, which is approximately 500 million light years from Earth, was unexpected and deepens this astronomical mystery, indicating that FRB may not be associated with a particular type of galaxy or environment.

“It is the closest FRB to Earth,” explains Benito Marcotte, joint director of the VLB European Research Infrastructure Consortium and lead author of the article on nature. Surprisingly, he found himself in a different environment from the previous four BBs, one of those environments. Challenge our thoughts on what could be the source of the explosion. “

The researchers hope that more studies will discover the conditions involved in the production of these mysterious transient radio pulses, and some unanswered questions they will raise. Jason Hessels, author of the Dutch Institute of Radio Astronomy (Astron) and the University of Amsterdam, states: “Our goal is to detect more FRB and finally understand its origins.

“It is the closest FRB to Earth,” explains Benito Marcotte, joint director of the VLB European Research Infrastructure Consortium and lead author of the article on nature. Surprisingly, he found himself in a different environment from the previous four BBs, one of those environments. Challenge our thoughts on what could be the source of the explosion. “

The researchers hope that more studies will discover the conditions involved in the production of these mysterious transient radio pulses, and some unanswered questions they will raise. Jason Hessels, author of the Dutch Institute of Radio Astronomy (ASTRON) and the University of Amsterdam, says: “Our goal is to detect more FRB and eventually understand its origins.”

Gemini and the NRC-Herzberg Board, CHEM CEO Luke Simmer, also said in an office in Canada: “I am pleased to see that the different observation facilities complement each other during high demand investigations.” “We are especially honored to make astronomical observations at Mounakia in Hawaii.” The extraordinary observation conditions of this site are important to make such astronomical discoveries. “

Chris Davis of the US National Science Foundation UU., He said: “Without a doubt, understanding the origins of FRB will be an exciting challenge for astronomers in the 2020s.” Gemis Program Officer. “We believe that Mithun will play an important role, and Mithun seems to have made these critical comments at the beginning of the new decade,” Davis said.

Some comments:

  • [1] The Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) operates an innovative radio telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory in Canada. The new construction of the CHIME telescope as FRB 180916.J0158 / 65 makes it particularly expert in the discovery of FRB.
  • [2] Following the discovery of FRB 180916.J0158 + 65 by the CHIME / FRB collaboration, radio observations were made using eight radio telescopes of the European Long Line Baseline Interferometry Network (EVN).
  • [3] Gemini Observation The Gemini multi-object spectrograph (GMOS) was used between July and September 2014 at the Gemini North Telescope in Maunake, Hawaii.
  • [4] Prior to today’s observations, the evidence hinted at the possibility of repeated and non-repeated FRBs in very different environments. FRB 180916.J0158 + 65 was found to reside in a massive star-forming region within a dwarf galaxy, with only one location accurately replicated, replicating FRB. 

In contrast, the three non-repeated local FRBs were found in all large galaxies and were not associated with star-forming regions, leading to the assumption that there were two different types of FRB. More information: This research is presented in a Nature article, entitled An intense and repetitive radio located in a nearby spiral galaxy.

The mysterious repetition of the rapid burst of the radio detects the surrounding galaxy: astronomers track the signal of a repetitive and repetitive rapid radio burst only a second time, and it is in a spiral galaxy similar to ours, far away.

Fast radio bursts, or FRB, are long-lasting millisecond radio waves. Personal radios explode once and then do not return. It is known that repeated and intense bursts of radio sometimes produce small energy radio waves. Over the years, many individual rapid radios returned from their sources in other galaxies, although they have not yet shed light on what they have created.

But the first source of this new discovery that the FRB was reproduced in 2019 deepens the mystery of the creation of these radio waves. The source of the new repetitive FRB, known as 180916.J0158 + 65, was discovered by a global effort of eight terrestrial telescopes, indicating the location in a galaxy half a billion light years away from Earth.

Although it seems incredibly distant, it is seven times closer than other repeated radio bursts and is revealed to be 10 times closer than non-repeated FRBs.

Mohit Bhardwaj, co-author and PhD student of the McGill University study, said: “The FRB is the most famous and we speculate that it may be a more traditional object on the outskirts of our own galaxy.” However, observations have shown that it is in a relatively close galaxy, so it remains a FRB disruptor, but now it is enough to be studied with many other telescopes.

The study, published Monday in the journal Nature, And their findings were presented: 235th Annual Meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Honulu, the first burst of rapid repetitive radio, FRB 121102, a small dwarf It was found attached to the galaxy that the stars and metal.

Benito Marcotte quoted the lead author of the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe: Many glimpses that we had previously repeated that the FRB was born from a very special and extreme position within the very small and dwarf telescope [galaxy] were identical. Observatory.

This discovery represented the first piece of the puzzle, but also raised more questions than it solved, such as the marked and non-repetitive. A repetition had a fundamental difference between the FRB. Now, we have created a second one, repeating the FRB, which challenges our previous ideas about what could be the source of these explosions. “

On June 19, 2019, the joint institute reiterated the rapid radio explosion, which was initially discovered in 2018 by the CHIME Telescope of Canada. In five hours, the telescope detected four explosions that lasted less than two seconds.

He used a technique called Very Long Baseline Interferometry to combine the power of the telescope and used it to fix the location of the FRBs in an area of seven light years.

Astronomers compared the ability to stand on Earth to be able to identify someone on the Moon. This new burst of fast and repetitive radio is not only different from other repeated tracks, but also all the fastest radio bursts are detected.

The differences between repeated and non-repeated rapid radio bursts are therefore less pronounced, and we believe that these events cannot be associated with a particular type of galaxy or environment, “by Kenji Nemo, co-author and Amsterdam PhD student.”

It may be that the FRB originates from a large zoo of locations throughout the universe and only needs to follow certain specific circumstances. The rapid burst of the radio was detected by one of the spiral arms of the Milky Way galaxy.

It was also within a region of the star-forming arm, the researchers said. Learning more about Burst’s host galaxy can expose astronomers to the environment from which it originates and eventually discover the greatest mystery of what makes them.

As it is closer than others, astronomers will observe it more in the future. Understanding fast radio bursts can help astronomers learn more about the universe. The more bursts they can track, the better they can use the signal of how they are distributed throughout the universe.

Scientists find iron ‘ice’ in the Earth’s core: according to new research, the Earth’s inner core is hot, under extreme pressure and ‘snowy’, allowing scientists to better understand the forces that They affect the entire planet.

It can help Ice is made up of small iron particles that fall from the molten outer core and accumulate in the inner core. According to new research, the inner core of the Earth is warmer, which can help scientists better understand the forces that affect the entire planet.

The ice is made up of small iron particles, much heavier than any snowflake on the Earth’s surface, which fall from the molten outer core and freeze up to 200 miles thick. They are formed that cover the inner core.

The image may seem like an exotic winter paradise. But the scientists who led the investigation said how the rocks are inside this volcano. The Earth’s metal core serves as the magma chamber that we know best in the cortex, “said Jung-Fu Lin, a professor and co-author of the Jackson School of Geoscience studies at the University of Texas at Austin.

The study is available online and will be published on December 23 in the printed version of JGR Solid Earth. Eugen Zhang, associate professor at Sichuan University in China, led the study.

Other co-authors include Jackson School graduate student Peter Nelson; And Nick Diegert, an assistant professor at the University of Tennessee who researched during a postdoctoral fellowship at Jackson School.

The Earth’s core cannot be sampled, so scientists study it by recording and analyzing seismic wave signals (a type of energy wave) as they pass through the Earth. However, the cessation between expected values based on recent seismic wave data and existing models of the Earth’s core has raised doubts.

When they pass through the base of the outer nucleus, the waves move more slowly than expected and move faster than expected when the upper round nucleus passes through the eastern hemisphere.

The study proposes iron ice-covered cores as an explanation of these pests. Scientific S.I. Braginski proposed in the early 1960s that there was a dirty layer between the inner and outer nuclei, but the prevailing knowledge about the conditions of heat and pressure in the central atmosphere eliminated that theory.

However, new data extracted from the experiments and Zhang’s new scientific literature on core-like materials found that crystallization was possible and that approximately 15% of the lower outer core may be composed of iron-based crystals that eventually dilute They are. He can fall. Seated in the outer core and the solid inner core.

It’s strange to think, “Diggert said. You have crystals inside the outer ice core in the inner core several hundred kilometers away.” The researchers say that accumulated ice accumulations are the cause of seismic disasters. Seismic waves below.

Variations in the size of the ice pile, thin in the eastern hemisphere and thick in the west, explain the change in speed. The inner core boundary is not a simple and smooth surface, which can affect thermal conduction and the core. Convection, ”said Zhang.

The paper compares the glaciation of iron particles with a process that occurs near the surface of the Earth within the magma chambers, which involves the melting and polishing of minerals. In magma chambers, the mineral collection is known as “accumulated rock.”

In the Earth’s core, iron condensation contributes to the growth of the inner core and the decrease of the outer core. And it gave a basic effect on the phenomenon that affects the entire planet, from the generation of its magnetic field to the radiant heat that increases the speed of tectonic plates, a greater understanding of its structure and behavior can help you understand how these Great processes

Bruce Buffay, a professor of geological sciences at the University of California, Berkeley, who studies the interiors of the planet and does not participate in the study, said the research asked questions about the Earth and the interior of the Earth for a long time. It can help you know how the core came about.

 correlation of the predictions of the model with strange observations allows us to speculate on the possible compositions of the liquid nucleus and perhaps this information is associated with the position that the planet formed when it formed. The initial position of the Earth is an important factor.

A team studied two tortured skeletons of medium size and concluded that in real

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