The surrounding atmosphere of the brown dwarf carries powerful winds. Brown dwarfs are cool, wispy objects that form between a gas giant, like Jupiter or Saturn, and stars like the Sun. Sometimes called failed stars, they are too small to sustain hydrogen fusion reactions in their nuclei and their gases in the atmosphere shares many characteristics with giant planets.
The speed of the wind in the atmospheres of the gas giants of the solar system can be obtained by comparing the period of rotation of the planet in the infrared (detection of the upper atmosphere) and radio (connected to the interior). Now, a team of US astronomers.
USA And the UK has applied this method to measure wind speed on 2MASS J10475385 + 2124234, a brown dwarf located 34 light years from Earth, and has produced 660 m / s. Achieves an average wind speed of sec. In a west-east direction. The 2MASS Artist Concept J10475385 + 2124234 represents the magnetic field and upper atmosphere.
Which were observed at different wavelengths to determine wind speed. Astronomer in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Bucknell University, Dres. “We observed that Jupiter’s period of rotation in the form of radio observations is different from the period of rotation determined by observations at the visible and infrared wavelengths,” said Kellyanne Allers.
This difference is due to the fact that radio emissions are caused by electrons that interact with the planet’s magnetic field, which are deeply embedded within the planet, while infrared emission comes from the upper part of the atmosphere. The atmosphere moves faster than the planet’s interior, and there is a similar difference in velocities due to atmospheric winds.
“Because we expect the same mechanism to work on a brown dwarf, we decided to measure its rotational speed with radio and infrared telescopes,” said Dr., a researcher at the Department of Astrophysics at the American Museum of Natural. Johanna Voss added. History
With NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope in 2017 and 2018, Dr. Allers, Dr. Voss, and colleagues observed 2MASS J10475385 + 2124234. They found that their infrared brightness varied regularly, possibly due to the rotation of some long-lasting feature in its superior atmosphere.
They then used the very large Carl G. Janasky matrix to measure the duration of rotation of the interior of the brown dwarf. As with Jupiter, they discovered that 2MASS J10475385 + 2124234’s atmosphere rotates faster than its interior, with a calculated wind speed of approximately 660 m / s.
This is much faster than Jupiter’s wind speed, approximately 100m / s. “This is consistent with the theory and simulations that predict high wind speeds in brown dwarfs,” said Dr. Allers. The team technique can be used to measure winds not only on other brown dwarfs, but also on exoplanets.
“The magnetic fields of giant exoplanets are weaker than those of brown dwarfs, so it will be necessary to use radio measurements for 2MASS J10475385 + 2124234 at low frequencies,” said Dr. Peter Williams, an astronomer at Harvard & Smithsonian, said . Center for Astrophysics and the American Astronomical Society.
Dr. “We are excited that our method can now be used to help us better understand the atmospheric dynamics of brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets,” said Allers. In the first, NASA measured wind speed on a brown dwarf. This artist’s concept depicts a brown dwarf, an object that is at least 13 times Jupiter’s mass.
But not large enough to initiate nuclear fusion at its core, which defines a star. It is a specialty. Scientists who used NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope recently made the first direct measurements of air on brown dwarfs. For the first time, scientists have measured wind speed directly on a brown dwarf.
Which is larger than Jupiter (the largest planet in our solar system), but not large enough to become a star. To accomplish the discovery, he used a new method that could also be applied to learn about the atmosphere of gas-dominated planets outside the solar system.
Described in an article in the journal Science, the work combines observations from a group of radio telescopes with data from NASA‘s recently retired infrared observatory, the Spitzer Space Telescope, managed by the agency’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California.
Officially named 2MASS J10475385 + 2124234, the new study’s target was a brown dwarf located 32 light-years from Earth, a stone’s throw, cosmically speaking. The researchers detected winds moving around the planet at a speed of 1,425 mph (2,293 kilometers per hour). In comparison, Neptune’s atmosphere has the strongest winds in the solar system, moving at speeds in excess of 1,200 mph (approximately 2,000 km / h).
Measuring the speed of the wind on Earth means observing the movement of our gaseous atmosphere relative to the planet’s solid surface. But brown dwarfs are almost entirely made of gas, so “air” is somewhat different.
A brown dwarf has upper layers where gas fractions can move freely. At a certain depth, the pressure becomes so intense that the gas behaves like a single, solid ball that is considered to be inside the object. As the interior rotates, it draws the upper layers (the atmosphere) along, so that the two are almost in sync.
Brown dwarfs are more massive than planets but not as massive as stars. In general, they are 13 to 80 times larger than Jupiter’s mass. A brown dwarf becomes a star if its original pressure is high enough to initiate nuclear fusion.
In their study, the researchers measured slight differences in the velocity of the brown dwarf’s atmosphere relative to its interior. With an atmospheric temperature of 1,100 ° F (600 ° C), this brown dwarf particularly radiates substantial amounts of infrared light.
Coupled with proximity to Earth, this feature made it possible for Spitzer to locate features in gray dwarf environments as they move in and out. The team used those features to visualize atmospheric rotational motion.
To determine the velocity of the interior, they focused on the magnetic field of the brown dwarf. A relatively recent discovery found that brown dwarfs have strong magnetic fields. As the brown dwarf rotates. The magnetic field accelerates charged particles, which in turn produce radio waves, that researchers Carl G. in New Mexico. Jansky found radio telescopes at the Very Large Array.
Planetary Atmosphere: The first study demonstrating this comparative method of measuring wind speed on a brown dwarf is new. To assess its accuracy, the group tested the technique using Jupiter’s radio and infrared observations, consisting primarily of gas and a physical structure similar to a small brown dwarf.
The team compared intrinsic turnover rates using Jupiter’s atmosphere and the data they were able to collect for more distant brown dwarfs. He then confirmed his calculations for Jupiter’s wind speed, using more detailed data collected by probes studied closest to Jupiter, showing that his approach to brown dwarfs has worked.
Scientists have previously used Spitzer to infer the presence of winds on exoplanets and brown dwarfs based on changes in the brightness of their atmosphere in infrared light. And data from the High Radial Speed Planet Finder (HARPS), an instrument at the La Silla Telescope at the European Southern Observatory in Chile, has been used to make direct measurements of wind speed on a distant planet.
But the new article represents the first time scientists compare atmospheric motion to the motion of the interior of a brown dwarf. According to the authors, if the manual is correct, the method used can be applied to other brown dwarfs or larger planets.
We think this technique can be really valuable in providing information about the dynamics of the exoplanet atmosphere, said lead author Kellyanne Allers, an associate professor of physics and astronomy at Bucknell University in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania.
What is really exciting is being able to know how the chemistry, atmospheric dynamics and the environment around an object are interconnected, and there is the possibility of getting a really complete view of these worlds.
The Spitzer Space Telescope was dissolved on January 30, 2020, after more than 16 years in space. JPL managed the operations of the Spitzer mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. Spitzer’s scientific data continues to be analyzed by the scientific community through the Spitzer Data Archive located at the Infrared Science Archive located at IPAC at Caltech.
Scientific operations were conducted at the Spitzer Science Center at IPAC in Caltech, Pasadena. The spacecraft’s operation was based at Lockheed Martin Space in Littleton, Colorado. Caltech manages JPL for NASA. For more information on Spitzer.. The results were published in the journal Science.
How the brown dwarf flies: The wind speed of a ‘failed star’ was measured for 1 time and the same technique could be used on the giant gas exoplanet. A brown dwarf, left, and Jupiter, right. The artist’s concept of the brown dwarf reflects the magnetic field and upper atmosphere, which were observed at different wavelengths to determine wind speed in a new study.
For the first time, astronomers have measured wind speed on an object heavier than a brown dwarf or “failed star,” a planet, but not enough to host large-scale fusion reactions that are power stars. A new study report, this speed is approximately 1,450 mph (2,330 km / h), four times faster than any pimp we’ve ever experienced on Earth. (The terrestrial record is 318 mph or 512 km / h, which was established by a tornado in Oklahoma in 1999.)
The research team studied a brown dwarf named 2MASS J10475385 + 2124234, which is approximately 40 times heavier than Jupiter and is 34 light years from Earth. Scientists devised a novel strategy inspired by Jupiter’s earlier observations.
“We note that Jupiter’s period of rotation determined by radio observations is different from the period of rotation determined by observations at visible and infrared wavelengths,” said study author Kellyanne Allers, associate professor of physics and astronomy at the Bucknell University in Pennsylvania. She said in a statement.
That’s because the radio emission comes from electrons that interact with Jupiter’s magnetic field, which is deeply ingrained deep inside the planet, he explained. Visual and infrared (IR) data, on the other hand, reveal what’s happening on top of the gas giant’s cloud.
Therefore, the difference between the two rotational speeds provides a measure of the wind speed in Jupiter’s upper atmosphere. And it should be possible to collect similar data for brown dwarfs, which are like gas giants at scale, the team argued.
They used the very large array telescope network in New Mexico in 2018 by collecting radio data at 2MASS J10475385 + 2124234. And it received IR observations in 2017 and 2018 with NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope, which tracked the motion of an installation of long life through a superior atmosphere of brown dwarf.
(The researchers also studied a second brown dwarf, called WISE J112254.73 + 255021.5, but were unable to obtain the IR information required for that one.) The data showed that the prevailing winds 2MASS J10475385 + 2124234 from east to west at approximately 1,450 mph, plus or minus 690 mph (1,110 km / h).
The researchers said Jupiter’s upper atmosphere is much faster than average winds, which are approaching a speed of about 250 mph (400 km / h). Such an asymmetry is to be expected. After all, the brown dwarf is considerably warmer, and therefore more energetic, than Jupiter. 2MASS J10475385 + 2124234 has an estimated temperature of 1,124 ° F (607 ° C), while Jupiter’s clouds are freezing to minus 230 F (minus 145 C).
The new results should help astronomers learn more about the complex dynamics of brown atmospheres, which are not well understood. After all, the researchers now have a real wind speed number instead of just an estimate to connect to their model.
“If you know how fast the wind speed is, you can have very good control over whether the atmosphere dominates in spherical bands or storms,” said a graduate researcher at the American Museum of Natural History.