Three Variants Of The SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus

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Genetic studies identify three variants of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. In an analysis of the phylogenetic network of the first 160 complete SARS-CoV-2 genomes that were classified from human patients, an international team of scientists found three different variants of SARS-CoV-2: A, B, and C.

Types A and C are found outside East Asia in significant proportions, that is, between Europeans and Americans; In contrast, type B is the most common type in East Asia, and its ancestral genome does not appear to extend to derived B types without extending outside of East Asia.

Which has a founder effect or immunological or environmental resistance against this guy outside of Asia. points… Color scanning electron micrograph of an apoptotic cell (green-brown) isolated from a patient sample infected with SARS-COV-2 virus particles (pink).

A geneticist at Cambridge University, Drs. Peter Forster said: Sars-Cove-2 family trees have very fast mutations to be carefully felt. We use a mathematical network algorithm to visualize all the appreciable trees simultaneously.

These techniques are primarily known for mapping the movements of prehistoric human populations through DNA. We believe this is the first time that they have been used to detect coronavirus infection pathways such as SARS-CoV-2.

Dr. Forster and colleagues used data from the SARS-CoV-2 virus genome sampled from around the world between December 24, 2019 and March 4, 2020. They revealed three different types of viruses, including closely related lineage groups.

They found that the closest type of SARS-VOC-2 discovered in bats, A, the genome of the original human virus, was present in Wuhan, but surprisingly it was not the city’s dominant type of virus. Mutated versions of A were seen in Americans living in Wuhan, and a large number of type A viruses were found in patients in the US. USA And Australia.

Wuhan’s dominant type of virus, B, prevailed in patients in East Asia. However, the variant has not extended far beyond the region, and affects a founding event in Wuhan, or resistance against the type outside East Asia.

Variant C is the predominant European variant, found in early patients in France, Italy, Sweden, and England. This is absent from the Chinese mainland sample in the study, but has been observed in Singapore, Hong Kong, and South Korea.

The new analysis also shows that one of the first infections of the virus in Italy occurred through the first documented German infection on January 27, and that another early Italian infection route belonged to the Singapore group.

Crucially, the team’s genetic networking techniques precisely established established infection pathways: mutations and viral lineages connect points between known cases. As such, scientists argue that these plant genetic methods can be applied to the latest sequencing of the coronavirus genome to help predict future hot spots and global growth.

Phylogenetic networks of 160 SARS-CoV-2 genomes. Node A is a group of roots that is distinguished from the BAT (Rhinophos ephysin) BATICO VRTG13 coronavirus of Yunnan province, China. The regions of the circle are proportional to the number of species and each notch in the link represents a mutated nucleotide position.

Image credit: Forster et al, doi: 10.1073 / pnas.2004999117. “Analysis of the phylogenetic network has the potential to help identify unspecified sources of COVID-19 infection, which can then be quarantined to prevent further spread of the disease worldwide,” said Dr. Forster.

A, the most closely related variant of the virus found in both bats and pangolins, has been described by researchers as the root of the outbreak. B is derived from A, which is separated by two mutations, then C is the daughter of B.

“The location of variant B in East Asia may be the result of a founder effect: a genetic bottleneck that occurs when, in the case of viruses, a new type is established from a small isolated group of infections” – The authors said. He argues that there is another explanation worth considering.

Dr. Forster said that the Wuhan type B virus can be immune or ecological to a large segment of the East Asian population. It may have to be silenced to eliminate resistance outside East Asia. We are seeing slower mutation rates in East Asia than elsewhere at this early stage.

The viral network we have is a snapshot of the early stages of the epidemic, before large numbers of mutations obscure COVID-19’s evolutionary pathways. This is like catching a major supernova on the spot. The study was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Phylogenetic network of 160 SARS-CoV-2 genomes. Node A is a group of roots obtained with bat (Rhinophos afficin), which isolates Batico VRTG13 from Yunnan province from the coronavirus, China.

The regions of the circle are proportional to the number of species, and each notch in the link represents a mutated nucleotide position. Analysis of the phylogenetic network has the potential to help identify unspecified sources of COVID-19 infection.

Which can then be quarantined to prevent further spread of the disease worldwide, said Dr. Forster. . A, the most closely related variant of the virus found in both bats and pangolins, has been described by researchers as the root of the outbreak.

B is taken from A, which is separated by two mutations, then C is the daughter of B. “The location of the eastern part of B Asia may be the result of a founding effect: a genetic bottleneck that occurs when the virus in one case.

It is established from a small isolated group of new types of infection, the authors said. He argues that there is another explanation worth considering. Dr. Wuhan type B virus can be immunological or ecological for a large segment of the East Asian population, said Roster.

It may have to be silenced to eliminate resistance outside East Asia. We are seeing slower mutation rates in East Asia than elsewhere at this early stage. The viral network we have is a detailed snapshot of the early stages of the pandemic.

And before large numbers of mutations obscure COVID-19‘s evolutionary pathways. It’s like catching a big supernova on the spot. The study was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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