Vikings All ancient Scandinavian DNA studies prove it. In the popular imagination, the Vikings were the dreaded blonde warriors of Scandinavia, using long boats to raid Europe in a short but reign of terror.
But based on analysis of the genome of 442 ancient humans from archaeological sites in Scandinavia, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Iceland, Greenland, Estonia, Ukraine, Poland, and other Eastern European countries, the reality is much more complex.
The maritime expansion of Scandinavian populations during the Viking Age was a far-reaching change in world history. Margerian et al sequenced the genomes of 442 humans from archaeological sites in Europe and Greenland to understand the global impact of this expansion. Image credit: Henrietta Elizabeth Marshall.
The word Viking comes from the Scandinavian word ‘Vikinger’ which means ‘pirate’. The Viking era generally refers to a period from 800 AD, a few years after the initial recorded raid, to the 1050s, a few days before the Norman conquest of England in 1066.
The Vikings changed the political and genetic course of Europe and beyond: Kutare became king of Greater England, Leif Erikson was believed to be the first European to arrive in North America, 500 years before Christopher Columbus, and in take Olaf Trengston away. It is attributed to him. Christianity for Norway.
Many expeditions involved raids on monasteries and cities along the coastal settlements of Europe, but commercial goods like seal furs, tusks, and grease were often targeted for a more practical purpose.
“We don’t know genetically what they looked like until now,” said lead author Professor Eske Vilslev, a researcher at the University of Cambridge and director of the Lundbeck Foundation Center for Geometry at the University of Copenhagen.
“We found a genetic difference between the various Viking populations within Scandinavia, which showed that Viking groups in the region were much more numerous than they realized.”
“Our research has also replaced the modern image of the Vikings with blonde hair because many had gray hair and were influenced by the gene flow from outside Scandinavia.”
Professor Wilslev and his colleagues sequenced the entire genome of 442, mostly men, women, children and babies from the Viking era. Researchers analyzed DNA from the remains of a ship burial in Estonia and found that four Viking brothers had died on the same day.
He also noted that male skeletons from a Viking graveyard in Orkney, Scotland, were not actually Vikings, despite being buried with swords and other Viking memorabilia. There was not a word for Scandinavia during the Viking era, which came later.
But studies show that Vikings now travel from Norway to Ireland, Scotland, Iceland and Greenland. Denmark now travels to England. And now the Vikings from Sweden moved to the Baltic countries in all their raids.
An Evolutionary Genomics researcher at the Globe Institute, first author Dr. “We used Viking DNA analysis to find out where it fit with the genetic picture of ancient Europeans,” said Ashot Margrian. At the University of Copenhagen.
“The results were shocking and some answer long-standing historical questions and confirm previous beliefs that lacked evidence.” We determined that close relatives were involved in the Viking raid campaign when we discovered four brothers who died the same day in a boat burial in Estonia.
The rest of the people on the ship genetically suggested that they all came from a small town or village in Sweden. Scientists also found genetically Pictish people, who were genetically mixed with Scandinavians.
The Picts were Celtic-speaking people who lived in the east and north of Scotland during the late British Iron Age and the early medieval period. Scandinavian diasporas established trade and settlement from the American continent to the Asian steppe, said Professor Soren Sindbeck, an archaeologist at the Mosagard Museum.
They exported ideas, technologies, language, beliefs and practices and developed new socio-political structures. Importantly, our results suggest that ‘Viking’ identity was not limited to people of Scandinavian genetic ancestry.
The genetic heritage of the Viking era is still alive today, with 6% of the UK population predicted to have Viking DNA in their genes, compared to 10% in Sweden.
The results change the perception of who exactly the Viking was. The history books will need to be updated, ”concluded Professor Willerslev. The findings were published in the journal Nature.
The new study suggests that not all Vikings were Scandinavian. Not all Vikings were from Scandinavia, not all were golden, and up to 6% of the UK population may have Viking DNA in their genes, a new study suggests.
The researchers say the results of the six-year project erase the modern image of Vikings as ferocious predators that traveled from Scandinavia to the sea and traversed Europe and beyond. DNA sequencing of more than 400 Viking skeletons from scattered archaeological sites in Europe and Greenland has shed new light on what is known about them.
Professor SK Wilslev, a fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge University and director of the Center for Geoinetics at the Lundbeck Foundation at the University of Copenhagen, led the study.
He said: We have the image of Vikings well connected to each other to fight the Kings in Europe, going to business and robbing parties because this is what we see on television and read in books. But genetically, we have shown for the first time that it was not like the world.
“This study alters the notion of who exactly the Viking was: no one could predict this significant gene flow from southern Europe and Asia to Scandinavia and preceded it during the Viking era.”
The researchers looked at 442 mostly Viking-era men, women, children and babies with their teeth and bones found in Viking graves. He analyzed DNA from the remains of a ship burial in Estonia and revealed that four Viking brothers had died on the same day.
According to research published in Nature, male skeletons from a Viking graveyard in Orkney, Scotland, were not actually genetically Viking despite being buried with swords and other Viking memorabilia.
Although there was no term for Scandinavia during the Viking era, the study suggests that Norway now travels to Ireland, Scotland, Iceland, and Greenland. Denmark now travels to England. And now Sweden has moved from Sweden to its assault groups of men in the Baltic countries, the scientists suggest.
“We found that the Vikings were not only Scandinavian in their genetic ancestry,” said Professor Martin Sikora, lead author of the paper and associate professor at the Center for Geoinetics at the University of Copenhagen, as we analyzed the genetic influences on their DNA. Southern Europe and Asia that had never been thought of before.
“Many Vikings have high levels of non-Scandinavian ancestry in and out of Scandinavia, suggesting an ongoing gene flow across Europe.” The research team also found that genetically caricatured people became Vikings without genetically mixing with Scandinavians.
The Picts were Celtic-speaking people who lived in the east and north of Scotland during the late British Iron Age and the early medieval period. Assistant Professor Fernando Racimo, lead author at the University of Copenhagen Center for Geoinetics, said the data set has been important to the study of complex traits and natural selection in the past.
He said: “This is the first time that we can take a detailed look at the evolution of variants under natural selection in European history over the last 2,000 years. “Viking genomes allow us to describe how selection developed during and after the Viking movements in Europe, affecting genes associated with important traits such as immunity, pigmentation and metabolism.
We can also estimate the physical presence of ancient Vikings and compare them to Scandinavians today. The study also shows that the genetic heritage of the Viking era still remains today, with 6% of the UK population predicted to have Viking DNA in their genes, compared to 10% in Sweden.
Professor Vilserlev concluded: The results change the perception of who the Viking really was. The history books will need to be updated. The word Viking comes from the Scandinavian word “Vikinger”, which means pirate.
The Viking era generally refers to a period from 800 AD, the first incursion recorded until a few years after the Norman conquest of England in 1066, up to the 1050s.